Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Marketing trend (Internet and online marketing) Assignment - 1

Marketing trend (Internet and online marketing) - Assignment Example Internet marketing reduces the overall marketing cost of a firm because a firm can utilize emailing as a marketing tool, which costs fairly lower than the direct mail (McCarthy, 2011). In addition, through e-marketing, a business can expect immediate impulsive response from its target market by them clicking on the website. In this manner, the message of the company reaches a large number of consumers in less time, as well as at low cost (Arnold, 2009). With regards to consumers, on the other hand, internet marketing reduces the cost of them going to the market to look for products. However, they can only do this if they have access to the internet (Jenkins, 2012). They also need various assets such as credit cards to purchase some goods over the internet. Internet or online marketing affects a business by providing it with a variety of advantages. It has turned into a power tool and organizations can use it to make their 24 hours presence throughout the world (Jenkins, 2012). Consumers also have the opportunity of shopping online, and inquire on the services and products at any time. With regards to customers, it is easy for them to leave their queries and comments through email or the feedback form (McCarthy, 2011). The firm’s representatives can also answer the queries instantly or in a short time period. This opportunity has helped customers build up close association with companies and this expands business. Internet marketing has brought about a rise in market competition since it has become easy for many firms to advertise successfully online by taking advantage of the low budgets (McCarthy, 2011). It is essential that firms, prior to entering an online market, be well aware of the potential impacts of internet marketing, and they should plan their strategies to face the online marketing barriers before going online. According to research, a majority of consumers, 60%, show reluctance when it come to purchasing goods over the internet. They opt

Monday, October 28, 2019

Problem Cell Phones Essay Example for Free

Problem Cell Phones Essay A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. Disadvantages Advantages of Cell phone According to : http://vidyaprakash. expertscolumn. com/article/disadvantages-cell-phones Cell phone is playing an important role in this modern world. It is very hard to see a person without a mobile phone. Even a little kid have the ability to access the cell phone fluently without any problem. Kids are very much interested in playing games in mobile phone and spending a lot of time with it. As we know too much of cell phone usage is not good for us and it will give some unwanted health issues. Cell phone will create some unwanted radiation which is not good for our brain. A person who is using cell for a long time will surely get health issues due to it. We must control our cell activities. Avoid using it for a long time and use it whenever necessary. Listening music using the ear phone is the new trend of the youngsters and most of the persons are interested in listening music with their hands free while riding their two wheeler. Really it is a dangerous thing which causes a lot of unwanted accidents. Most of the two wheeler accidents are happened due to this activity. Now we are living a fast life and dont have enough time to meet our friends and family members. Simply we make a call to them and ask about their updates. Previously people will meet their friends and beloved persons directly and ask about their present status, but now it is easy to communicate with anyone using the phone and most of the persons are converted to this trend it reduce the get together and social reunions a lot. Students will get diversion with cell phones, they are spending a lot of time with cell phone chatting and browsing online through their smart phone and reduce their studying activity. Most of the students are turned as cell phone and online addicts which is a great disadvantage. There is nothing wrong in using cell phone, we must use it in a limited manner to avoid unwanted issues due to it. Statement of the problem Cell phones have recently become an asset to society. Because of this, many of the negatives to cell phone ownership have been overlooked. Just a few of these problems are : Increases the likelihood of traffic accidents Increases the risk of brain cancer Scope and Limitations The research that I will conduct is only limited to students, particularly 4th year – Springtime batch 2013-2014 II. Review of related Literatures This section presents a summary of previous research materials. Information found within this section is all found in the web and journals. Cell phones do more harm than good According to: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_phone A hand-held mobile radiotelephone is an old dream of radio engineering. Arthur C. Clarke in a 1959 essay, where he envisioned a personal transceiver, so small and compact that every man carries one. He wrote: the time will come when we will be able to call a person anywhere on Earth merely by dialing a number. Such a device would also, in Clarkes vision, include means for global positioning so that no one need ever again be lost. Later, in Profiles of the Future, he predicted the advent of such a device taking place in the mid-1980s The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The most advantage of having mobile phone is you can communicate with your family, and friends no matter where you are. Cell phones also have applications for listening to music, playing games, and surfing the net. Besides that, there are lots of disadvantages. Using mobile phones can harm our brains, especially for those who are under the age of sixteen. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, and â€Å"radiations emitted from the phone are harmful for the eardrum†, say many scientists. In addition, when we use mobile phones while driving it causes unwanted accidents. Negative effects of cell phones on our brain Radiation from mobile phones may cause brain tissue damage, a two-year study has found. Scientists discovered that emissions from handsets affect the delicate make-up of cells in blood vessels, and could be a health hazard to regular users of the UKs 50million mobile phones. The radiation might disable a safety barrier in the body which protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood, they believe. It is the first time scientists have used cells from human blood vessels rather than rats, bringing researchers closer to the truth about long-term mobile phone use. Despite the millions spent on research in the last decade, the health implications of sustained use are still unclear. The biggest British study, led by Sir William Stewart, found two years ago that there was no evidence of a risk to health. A study published last year by the American National Cancer Institute also could not find a link between increased risk of brain cancer and mobile use. III. Research Methodology Research Design Name: Age: Sex: 1. How often do you use your cell phone ? 2. Do you know that using cell phone too much causes unwanted damages to the brain ? If yes. Do you believe that children below 10 years of age shouldn’t use cell phones ? 3. Is it really necessary for a person to have a cell phone ? Explain. 4. Is cell phone a disadvantage or advantage to your life ? Explain. Data Gathering Procedure The researcher will randomly ask ten (10 ) representatives out of the 37 students in the 4th year. A questionnaire was prepared by the researcher that will be used as a reference. The survey was conducted through the net. IV. Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the findings, analysis and interpretation of data gathered by the researcher whose main objective is to find out the different perspectives of people and to find out what kind of damage our cell phone will do to our brain and also to state some advantages of it. Through my research I’ve found out that many scientist have and will conduct research about the radiation that we can get from cell phones. Mostly scientist from America conducts these kinds of researches. I also found out that the radiation of the cell phone emits is dangerous to all of us. Especially those who are 16 years of age and below. I also found out that there is not enough proof that cell phones can really damage our brain. Someone said that it is early for us to conclude that cell phones are bad for our health. Because even scientists can’t really find the right answer to our questions. A scientist said that we don’t know what will be the impact of the radiation of the cell phone emits will do to us if we still use it for the next 10 or even 20 years. He also said that that is the reason why we need to conduct more studies. According to my survey 9 out of 10 said that they always use their cell phones. 9 out 10 said that they know that using cell phone too much causes unwanted damages to the brain. 10 out of 10 said that having cell phone is necessary because it’s time for us to upgrade and use the cell phone to communicate and because it is easier to do, it also takes less of our time if we use our cell phones as I have said in my introduction cell phones are wireless, we can use them anywhere. 5 out of 10 said that cell phones are advantages to their lives. Because it makes almost everything easy. 1 out of 10 said that it is a disadvantage because is makes us lazy. 4 out of 10 said that they pick advantage and disadvantage.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Comparing Jane Smileys A Thousand Acres and William Shakespeares King

Comparing Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres and William Shakespeare's King Lear Jane Smiley's novel A Thousand Acres is a modern version of William Shakespeare's King Lear.   The tragic ideas brought out by King Lear are revisited in A Thousand Acres both containing universal themes in which societies from past to present can identify with.   Tragedy is a form of drama that depicts the suffering of a heroic individual who is often overcome by the very obstacles he is struggling to remove.   The novel and play each contain distinct tragic elements that lead to the development of similar characters, plot, and images but both have distinct themes.   A Thousand Acres provides a new interpretation of Shakespeare's classic tragedy allowing the reader to create a unique twist to their opinions of the Lear family. William Shakespeare's tragedy of King Lear begins with the King's decision to divide his kingdom between his three daughters.   He gathers them all together, and tells them he will divide up the kingdom according to whoever has the most love for him.   Goneril and Reagan, the two older daughters, make big declarations of love in order to get the shares they want of the kingdom.   The youngest daughter, Cordelia, tells Lear that she loves him, as a daughter should love a father.   Lear becomes angry and disappointed with Cordelia's response feeling she has shown a lack of devotion so he takes action and banishes her.   When Kent, a close friend of Lear, attempts to defend Cordelia, but as well he is banished by Lear.   Cordelia marries the King of France and goes to live there. The kingdom is equally divided between Goneril and Regan.   These two daughters are evil and decide if Lear becomes too much of a problem then they will take d... ... which would have prevented this tragedy.   The blinding Gloucester becomes ironic because when he is blinded he is able to see that he has judged his son Edgar wrongly and it is Edmund who is evil.   Similarly, in A Thousand Acres   Loren the loyal son is the cause of his tragedy.  Ã‚   Both Lear and Larry become mad after giving up their power too early.   When Lear turns his kingdom over to his daughters he looses respect and power which cause him to go mad.   When Larry signs his farm over to his daughters he looses control of the land and goes mad.   Works Cited and Consulted Bradley, A.C. "King Lear." 20Lh Century Interpretations of King Lear. Ed. Jane Adelman. New Jersev; Prentice-Hall, 1978. Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of King Lear.   Ed. Russell Fraser.   New York: Penguin, 1998. Smiley, Jane.   A Thousand Acres.   New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1991.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Social Justice Assignment

In this assignment, the relevance of Rawls theory of social justice in improving the wellbeing of the people in society has been discussed. Social justice as understood by the writer is concerned with equal justice, not just in courts but in all aspects of society. This concepts demand that people have equal rights and opportunities: everyone, from the poorest person on the margins of society to the wealthiest deserves an even playing field.According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia â€Å"social justice generally refers to the ideas of creating a society of institution that is based on the principal of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being†. This means giving to each what he or she is due. It’s about the fair and proper administration of laws conforming to the natural law that all persons, irrespective of ethnic origin, gender, possessions, race religion etc are to be treated equally without prejudice. Rawls Theory of Social JusticeRawls theory of justice revolves around the adaption of two fundamental principals of justice which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society. The first principal guarantees the right of each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the liberty of others. The second principle states that the social and economic positions are to be (a) to everyone’s advantage (b) open to all. Norman. D (1987:145) explains that â€Å"John Rawls is widely known for his theory of justice as fairness, which develops principals of justice to govern a modern social order.Rawls theory provides a frame work that explains the significance, ion society assumed to consist of free and equal persons, of political and personal liberties, of equal opportunities, and cooperative arrangements that benefit the more and the less advantaged members of society. † It can be seen that John Rawls discusses his own theory of s ocial justice, which he calls â€Å"justice as fairness†. In his theory, Rawls defines two basic principles of justice. First, each person should be guaranteed certain freedoms regardless of his or social status.These freedoms include political liberties such as the right to vote and eligibility for public office. Everyone is entitled to free speech, as well as freedom of conscious and thought. People should be free to own their own property and free from unlawful arrest and seizure. Pogge W. (1999:87) adds that â€Å"Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust†.Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many. Rawls second principal of justice states that inequities are actually okay in society as long as these inequalities still help the less fortunate.In other words, everyone deserves an equal opportunity to achieve his or her goals. For example it it is okay that a CEO of Zesco makes more than a worker but all workers should have the opportunity to achieve that work status. Rawls states that these two principals are essential in order for justice as fairness to occur. According to Rawls, inequalities sometimes become unjust. Pogge W. (1999:67) stresses that â€Å"just because Rawls’s conception of social justice values equality, this does not mean that equal out comes will be achieved in society, or that they even can be.In fact, Rawls second principle asserts that inequalities in society are acceptable as long as they meet two conditions. First, as per the equal opportunity principle. † Inequalities are acceptable if every person in society, if every person is has a reasonable chance of obtaining the positions that lead to the inequalities. An example would be equal opportunity to achieve any job. Rawls (2003:43) specifies that â€Å"fair equality of opportunity requires not merely that public offices and social positions open in the formal sense, but that all should have a fair chance to attain them†.After explaining that today’s economic inequalities are simply not acceptable, Rawls (2003:59-60) explains the differences principal this way â€Å"to say that inequalities income and wealth are to be arranged for the greatest benefit of the least advantaged simply means that we are to compare schemes of cooperation by seeing how well off the leased advantaged are under each scheme, and then to select the scheme under which the least disadvantaged are better off than they are under any scheme.†With two competing arrangements of incomes in society, the fairer of the two and therefore the more just of the two is the one that is to the greatest benefit of the least advantage. Relevance of John Rawls theory of social justice in improving human wellbeing in society. Rawls' theory provides a framework that explains the significance, in a society assumed to consist of free and equal persons, of political and personal liberties, of equal opportunity, and cooperative arrangements that benefit the more and the less advantaged members of society. The following are the reasons why this theory is relevant.It advocates for equal rights of individuals. According to Voice . P (2011:189) stresses that â€Å"one the first principle –each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of basic equal liberties compatible with similar systems of basic equal liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. The second principle states that social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged consistent with the just savings principal, (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.†.These principals distribute the primary goods, rights and liberties in the first principles and opportunities, income and wealth in the second principal. The theory addresses injustices by recognizing the importance of social institutions in society. Rawls theory is very realistic in that it looks at the actual events and institutions that exist in society. As stated earlier, social justice is the idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being.From this theory it can be seen that he Rawls advocates for a society in which ther e is cooperation. Lovett . F (2011:10) explains that â€Å"the basic structure of a society which he defines as a way in which major social institutions distribute fundamental rights and duties determine the division of advantage from social cooperation. In A Theory of Justice, Rawls begins with the statement that Justice is the first virtue of social institution,’’ meaning that a good society is one structured according to principals of justice. †Abasic structure of a society is a set of social institutions and practices that systematically influence how well our lives can be expected to go, individual efforts aside. Here, Rawls explains the importance of principles of justice for two key purposes. First, to provide a way of assigning rights and duties in the basic institutions of society, and secondly, to define the appropriate distribution of the benefits and burdens of society. He observes that, by his definition, well-ordered societies are rare due to the f act that what is just and unjust is usually in dispute.He further notes that a well-ordered and perfectly just society must be formulated in a way that addresses the problems of efficiency, coordination, and stability. It acknowledges the importance of human rights. Rawls (2003:75) says â€Å"A just world order is perhaps best seen as a society of peoples, each people maintaining a well-ordered and decent political (domestic) regime, not necessarily democratic but fully respecting basic human rights.†Human rights are expansive and include rights in the following areas: general freedom; dignity; life; liberty; security; equality before the law; fair and public hearings by independent and impartial tribunals; presumption of innocence until proven guilty; freedom of movement and residence; right to seek and gain asylum from persecution. † The above are not the only human rights, but there are others. Human rights are expansive and include rights in many areas. For example, there should ne explicit inclusion of economic, social and cultural rights. Rights of disadvantaged groups including children, women, disabled and the elderly.Rawls theory is based on the social contract. The social contract according to the Wikipedia encyclopedia is â€Å"an intellectual construct that typically addresses two questions, first, that of the origin of society, and second, the question of the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their natural rights†.This means people need to agree on some ground rules in order to live together in harmony. Deneulin S. and Shahani L (2009:234) stresses that â€Å"Rawls turned to social contract tradition, when justice is understood as the outcome of mutual advantage†. Rawls conception of social justice is developed around the idea of a social contract, whereby people freely enter into an agreement to follow certain rules for the betterment of everyone. For example, people cast their votes during presidential or parliamentary election so that these people can represent then and address issues that affect society.If they fail to work according to the expectations of the people, they are voted out. The theory also recognizes the fact that inequalities should be of benefit to all the people in society. In other words, everyone deserves an opportunity to achieve his or her goals. Pogge W (1989:47) stipulates that â€Å"inequalities are acceptable as long as they meet two conditions. Daniel N (2009:57) explains that â€Å"inequalities in society are at times just. There are atleast two reasons for this. First economic inequalities that motivate people to strive for more can sometimes be justified, second inequalities may result from differential claims on merit†.For example, it can be looked at to be unfair if a person is getting 200 million while others are getting 20million but all workers should have the opportunity to achieve that work status. . Every person should be able benefit from the national cake depending on how much is available. This theory calls for meritocracy. that Rawls’s theory of justice acknowledges meritocracy in society. This is relevant in that meritocracy is based on ability and talent rather than on class privilege or wealth. The allocation of rewards, positions and responsibilities is objective and upon the merit of an individual.By doing so the disadvantaged members of society should also benefit. Inequalities must only occur in certain institutions and jobs that there is unequal opportunity for all to obtain. These inequalities must only occur in certain institutions and jobs that there is an equal opportunity for all to obtain. These inequalities include th e distribution of income and wealth. Also inequalities are acceptable if they are used for the purpose of delegating different responsibilities in a chain of command. The other relevance is that, the theory is based on the foundation of justice is fairness.Fairness means free from bias or injustice or the ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty. According to Rawls, justice is what free and equal persons would agree to as basic terms of social cooperation in conditions that are fair for this purpose. This idea he calls â€Å"justice as fairness. † Daniel N (2009:76) states that â€Å"Justice is the most important political value and applies to the ‘basic institutions of society’ – the political constitution and the institutions that regulate the market, property, family, freedom, and so on – because it is intimately connected to what society is and what it is for.If society is a matter of cooperation between equals for mutua l advantage, the conditions for this cooperation need to be defended and any inequalities in social positions must be justified†. Were there is justice there is peace free participation of individuals in society. This is to say the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality as defining the fundamental terms of their association. Justice, then, is fairness. Deneulin S.and Shahani L (2009:123)â€Å"For our agreement to secure a fair, impartial procedure, we need to eliminate any possible bias towards, say, the rich or the poor, or the religious or the atheist. So, argues Rawls, assume that we are to agree on these principles without knowing what our position in society will be or what our idea of the good is. The point of this ‘veil of ignorance’ is to ensure that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingenc y of social circumstances†. This theory is relevant in that, it advocates for social justice.This is relevant to the wellbeing of the people in that credit is able to go to those who deserve it. For example, most people who benefit from the bursary scheme are those who are capable of paying. The people it is intended to help do not even have access to it. Therefore, society craves for a time when the vulnerable will have a share of the national cake. Thus, Since all are similar situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain.Conclusion In conclusion, it should be noted that, Rawls theory is relevant in improving the wellbeing of the people in society. It is very practical in that it is marked by both conflicts between differing individual interests and an identity of shared interests. According to Rawls, when the two principles are satisfied, each person’s liberti es are secured and there is a sense defined by the difference principle in which everyone is benefited by social co-operation

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

: ) Presentation on Science

The value of science †¢ Science is man’s most powerful weapon, with which man has freed himself from the yoke of ignorance and subsequent fear. Science is man’s treasure house, which has constantly provided him with vitality, hopes, ambitions, understanding and insights †¢ We are in the age of science and technology. Man cannot live without the aid of science. Science has so much engulfed our lives that nothing can take place in our day to day work without the help of science. Our food, transport, learning, administration, recreation and social life are all linked with science in various ways. To answer the question whether science has come to mankind as a boon or as a use for ruin (bane), one should know what science exactly means. Science is said to be a systematic classification of experiences. We, men wonder at the various things and events happening around us. We get doubts; what are they? These questions are the basic seeds for science. Then starts the t hinking, reasoning, analysis, synthesis, comparison and contrast and finally the truth emerges †¢ Leaving that apart, another creation of science is pollution of the environment. Industrialization with the aid of science has polluted air, water, food and the atmosphere.The ozone layer is giving threatening signals. So here is a case for man to consider science as a cause of ruin. The aim of science is search for truth, and to know things, hitherto unknown. A scientist does not accept ideas, simply because, they were accepted by others earlier. Great discoveries are a result of reasoning. A lot of patience and observation are required. Civilization, as it is today, is the result of a number of discoveries made in the field of science. The invention of them simple wheel has resulted in our modern industrialization. †¢ The aim of science is search for truth, and to know things, hitherto unknown.A scientist does not accept ideas, simply because, they were accepted by others ea rlier. Great discoveries are a result of reasoning. A lot of patience and observation are required. Civilization, as it is today, is the result of a number of discoveries made in the field of science. The invention of them simple wheel has resulted in our modern industrialization. When the universe reveals more secrets to man by means of science, there is hope that the present man will become a superman and eventually science would be only a boon and not a bane of his life. Science without conscience is death of the soul.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

transgenic organisms essays

transgenic organisms essays Releasing a Transgenic Organism into Nature In the midst of our society's ever advancing biological technology, scientists have created a plant that is herbicide and pesticide resistant. The question of whether the public should have access to this controversial plant raised many bioethical questions. Farmers encouraged the sale of the plant because it would assist them financially and spare them unnecessary additional labor. They wouldn't have to worry about spraying their crops with herbicides and pesticides because the crops would already be equip to fight away bothersome weeds and pests. Environmentalists are split on the topic. Many strongly believe that the use of the transgenic plant in crops would greatly decrease the pollution that is typical of crops with "normal" plants. Whereas others feel that the plant should not be released into nature because it is believed that "mother nature" should be the only hand that regulates and advances the pace of nature. They are also nervous that possible cross-pollination between "normal" crops and transgenic crops could result in the production of super weeds that could rapidly spread. Leading to an ugly, very unwanted mess! Everything considered, I agree with most of the arguments both for and against the release of transgenic plants into nature. I believe that without taking a risk with our biological discoveries, our world will not evolve into something better; however, I also believe that before we expose the world to new technology, many tests and research should be performed to ensure that the product is safe for the environment, people, and animals. In a word, the only true solution to settle the dispute between the differing views on transgenic plants release into nature is compromise. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Combustion Definition in Chemistry

Combustion Definition in Chemistry Combustion is a chemical reaction that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent that produces energy, usually in the form of heat and light. Combustion is considered an exergonic or exothermic chemical reaction. It is also known as burning. Combustion is considered to be one of the first chemical reactions intentionally controlled by humans. The reason combustion releases heat is because the double bond between oxygen atoms in O2 are weaker than the single bonds or other double bonds. So, although energy is absorbed in the reaction, it is released when the stronger bonds are formed to make carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). While the fuel plays a role in the energy of the reaction, its minor in comparison because the chemical bonds in the fuel are comparable to the energy of the bonds in the products. Mechanics Combustion occurs when a fuel and an oxidant react to form oxidized products. Typically, energy must be supplied to initiate the reaction. Once combustion starts, the released heat can make combustion self-sustaining. For example, consider a wood fire. Wood in the presence of oxygen in air does not undergo spontaneous combustion. Energy must be supplied, as from a lit match or exposure to heat. When the activation energy for the reaction is available, the cellulose (a carbohydrate) in wood reacts with oxygen in air to produce heat, light, smoke, ash, carbon dioxide, water, and other gases. The heat from the fire allows the reaction to proceed until the fire becomes too cool or the fuel or oxygen is exhausted. Example Reactions A simple example of a combustion reaction is the reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to produce water vapor: 2H2(g) O2(g) → 2H2O(g) A more familiar type of combustion reaction is the combustion of methane (a hydrocarbon) to produce carbon dioxide and water: CH4 2O2 → CO2 2H2O which leads to one general form of a combustion reaction: hydrocarbon oxygen → carbon dioxide and water Oxidants The oxidation reaction may be thought of in terms of electron transfer rather than the element oxygen. Chemists recognize several fuels capable of acting as oxidants for combustion. These include pure oxygen and also chlorine, fluorine, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and chlorine trifluoride. For example, hydrogen gas burns, releasing heat and light, when reacted with chlorine to produce hydrogen chloride. Catalysis Combustion isnt usually a catalyzed reaction, but platinum or vanadium may act as catalysts. Complete Versus Incomplete Combustion Combustion is said to be complete when the reaction produces a minimal number of products. For example, if methane reacts with oxygen and only produces carbon dioxide and water, the process is complete combustion. Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen for the fuel to convert completely to carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete oxidation of a fuel may also occur. It also results when pyrolysis occurs prior to combustion, as is the case with most fuels. In pyrolysis, organic matter undergoes thermal decomposition at high temperature without reacting with oxygen. Incomplete combustion may yield many additional products, including char, carbon monoxide, and acetaldehyde.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

30 Best Marketing Books to Get Remarkable Results in 2019

30 Best Marketing Books to Get Remarkable Results in 2019 Leaders are readers. Top CEOs read a book per week. A study of 1,200 incredibly successful  people showed they had one thing in common: They self-educate by reading. When asked how he learned to build rockets, Elon Musk said, â€Å"I read books.† Bill Gates says  he learns by visiting interesting places, meeting with scientists, and watching lectures online†¦   Ã¢â‚¬Å"But reading is still the main way that i both learn new things and test my understanding.† You’ve heard the crazy stat about Warren Buffet, too right? The billionaire investor reads 500 pages  every day. Check this out, 42% of college grads  will never read a book again after college. So, you want a competitive advantage? Buffet recently explained the value of reading  this way: â€Å"That’s how knowledge works. It builds up, like compound interest. All of you can do it, but I guarantee not many of you will do it.† World-class leaders read broadly  (and often). Marketers are no different. We’re a breed who lives in a fast-paced, rapidly-evolving, wickedly high-stress world. If you stop growing (or even slow down) the few who apply their minds to master new skills and assimilate knowledge will outpace you. It’s just how things work. Since you’re reading this, I know that isn’t you. So, if you’re the kinda’ marketer who is: Competitive and wants to achieve real marketing success†¦ Hungry  for personal and  professional development†¦ Ready to outpace your competition  (and even yourself) Then I have two amazing things for you. First, I have this curated list of the 10 best marketing books for you to read this year. Second, I’m going to give you a shortcut in the line to your next promotion. You can grab the first chapter of 10x Marketing Formula: Your Blueprint For Creating ‘Competition-Free Content That Stands Out And Gets Results  for free! in oneplace. Save 20 hrs this week alone and every weekafter. If youve ever kicked the tires on , nows the time to see what its reallylike. Schedule Your Demo Success! Your download should start shortly. Clean up the chaos with your editorial calendar! With , youll Save time with blogging, social, and email think HOURS every week Schedule your social posts in batches and increase your posting frequency super easily Get your sht together and hold yourself accountable to publishing like the boss you are! Now’s the perfect time to start your 14-day free trial to see for yourself! Start Your Free Trial

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 172

Assignment Example These morals and values in some instances may conflict with my personal values and morals, in such cases it will require I adhere to the codes of ethics governing my profession. An example situation where my morals and personal values may contradict with my client’s personal values and morals is whereby I encounter a gay client. In a similar case, it may happen that I encounter a drug addict who tends to behave in an irrational manner and in most cases; he has a high chance of getting out of control and becoming violent. On a personal point of view, I may not be okay with the client’s morals and personal values however; I still have to understand that the client’s welfare is primary. I will also have to observe counselor’s codes of conduct and behave professional manner (NAADAC: The Association for Addiction Professionals, 2011). I will also have to attend the clients and ensure I help them or if I am unable to then I should not cause them any harm both mentally and physically. For the client who is a drug addict this challenge may serve as a driving force to help him change for the better as I would exert more effort in helping him. The key factor is to understand that as a professional counselor I should acknowledge my personal weaknesses and try to control them so that they do not affect my

Friday, October 18, 2019

Story Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Story - Essay Example But the plagiarism was just too much to be ignored. There were entire passages and paragraphs that had been copy-pasted from the web. Jason Blair was a rising journalist in 2003 (Bailey). He was rendering his services to the New York Times as a reporter. Everything was going fine until one day, an editor at the San Antonio Express-News found out certain common things between a column written by Blair and a previous report authored by Macarena Hernandez. This led to the starting of an investigation by the Times into Blair. As a result of the investigation, 36 out of the total of 73 articles written by Blair were found to contain fabrication, plagiarism, or some other kind of unethical behavior (Bailey). Blair was left with no option but to resign from his job as a reporter and a journalist from the New York Times. Bailey, Jonathan. â€Å"5 Famous Plagiarists: Where Are They Now?† Plagiarism Today. 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2015. . Grimes, A. C. â€Å"5 Insanely Blatant Acts of Plagiarism by Famous People.† 18 Feb. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

Working in teams Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Working in teams - Essay Example Another aspect of an effective team is that it should have plenty of discussions because it is these discussions which allow members to get to know each other better while at the same time helping the entire team to understand what is entailed in the projects that is being undertaken. As seen in the video, it is essential that decision making should be done by consensus rather than through the decision of the team leader because to do it by consensus allows for the input of all members. Moreover, it should be noted that it is through the consensus that team cohesion can be established because otherwise, it would lead to a situation where there is a lot of conflict within the team. Tuckman’s five stages of group formation can be considered to be a factor in the group seen in the video. These five stages involve formation, which defines the period when the team first meets, and reviews that challenges and opportunities available to it. The second stage of the team formation is storming where the weaknesses of all team members are tolerated and room is made to accommodate their ideas because to do otherwise might lead to failure. The third stage is norming, where the team members come to own the project in such a way that they are willing to invest their time and effort in order to make it succeed. The next step is performing, with members of the team being more knowledgeable of the task they are undertaking and this ensures that they have added motivation. The final stage is adjourning, which is the disbandment of the team after the project it is assigned is accomplished with the team members going their separate way. In the video, Joe seems to be the mo st advanced in the team, and can be considered to be in the norming stage because he is willing to invest his time in the project at hand (Managers Hot Seat, 2015). Cheng is at the storming stage, where his statement that he will

Thursday, October 17, 2019

All Quiet on the Western Front Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

All Quiet on the Western Front - Essay Example This movie managed to recreate the horrors of war on the screen, with an intensity that was not only gripping and awe-inspiring in those times but has conclusively sustained its relevance and appeal, even today. Lewis Milestone, with an essentially cinematic panache and finesse, managed to unravel the conflict inherent between the youthful yearning for fame and heroism and the frustrating violence and irony that waited for a group of greenhorns who trudged their way to the battlefield, enveloped in an aura of grandeur and great expectations. The theme and cinematographic techniques exploited in the movie were to set the pace for the future war movies. â€Å"All Quiet on the Western Front† unraveled the basic accouterments of modern warfare, be it gut wrenching hunger and maddening insecurity, disturbing bloodshed and the pain of losing friends, the essential trauma that accompanies an unromantic death, with an intensity that is gripping and unsettling at the same time. Even today, the primary misconception that is the bane of Hollywood war movies is the unrelenting belief that a war movie to be successful has to inevitably rely on the grandeur and mammoth scale of the battle sequences, pepped up by a generous usage of war machinery, fanfare, and special effects. Milestone shattered such notions of magnanimity by letting this movie evolve beyond a spectacular dependence on costly and elaborate battle scenes, to penetrate deep into the recesses of the human psyche that are inherently averse to violence and bloodshed.... nanimity by letting this movie evolve beyond a spectacular dependence on costly and elaborate battle scenes, to penetrate deep into the recesses of human psyche that are inherently averse to violence and bloodshed. The movie is effectively and genuinely interspersed with intense and isolated scenes, which crystallize the actors' sense of fear, guilt and apprehension in an individualistic yet interrelated moment of time, highlighted by an apt usage of montage sequencing, parallel editing and high key lighting. One such awesome scene is the moment when Paul, while searching for safety and security in the trenches had to kill an enemy soldier, in an instinctive and desperate pursuit for survival. The cinematographer deftly managed to catch the trauma and guilt that takeover Paul, as he helplessly watched the prolonged and slow death of an enemy. Not only this, but the director was skillfully able to sustain Paul's disillusionment, guilt and agony for quiet a long time, accentuating its scope with just the right blend of lighting, sound and acting, which bring forth an enervating sense of claustrophobia laced with apprehension that defined the life in the trenches. This scene happened to be one amongst many such scenes that made this movie an everlasting success. The essential challenge before any anti-war movie is to build on the ubiquity and irrationality of war, which is inherently an anti-hero theme. The director is required to sustain and build upon the meaninglessness and futility of violence up to the level where all perceptions pertaining to the well-defined antagonists and protagonists melt and evaporate, making way for the inevitability of death that does not differentiate between a friend and a foe. The movie under consideration qualifies to be an all-time

Marketing analysis Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marketing analysis - Case Study Example The strength of the company is the exclusivity it provides through its garments. There is a prestige tag attached to the apparels it makes and that become the ‘want’ quotient for the customer. The high pricing is justified because of this prestige factor. The strength of the company also lies in the styles they have created, excellent service to the customer, wide range of sizes, colours and patterns available all come with the prestige factor. The weakness for True religion jeans comes from the marketing strategy implemented. For an average consumer the pricing is too high and the premium market cannot be predictably loyal. Additionally with launching of various apparel ranges like, swimwear, footwear etc. there could be a diversion from its core brand. According to International forum for cotton promotion the jeans market worldwide is grew from US$52 billion in 2007 to US $56 billion by 2014. North Americans have proved to be number one consumers of jeans having maximu m pairs of jeans in their wardrobes. Astonishingly the share of premium jeans is also significant. Even if it may look as mere 2 % of the total market the figures range very high as the basic market is of higher demand. Hence opportunity in the external environment is significant for the company. The threat to the company comes from the increasing share of other manufacturer’s in premium denim wear. ... Considering the analysis above it is a very wise strategy implemented by the company to market the jeans as a premium segment. The premium market share is growing at a significant rate. The organization is mainly counting on the attitude of the customers which says that as long as the garment delivers style and fit, the price for the same holds less importance. Promoting it through television and movie stars is another clever strategy as it instantly adds to the appeal of the jeans. The strategy also specifies that it is worth to pay a few extra as good quality comes with good pricing. Here the product promotion strategy is based on premium value for the money paid. The brand promotion is based on celebrity endorsements. The marketing strategy is based on the study of consumer of jeans and very well supported by services offered. Retail experience for a customer is memorable with good service offered across the counter. To add to it the customer is not sent away by non-availability o f the merchandise. So a customer when walks in is sure to get a memorable experience through wide range of merchandise, helping attitude of the staff and a great style and fit offered in variety of colours and patterns. This builds a strong foundation of customer relationship and makes the customer come back for more. Although the customer would want to come back for more satisfactory shopping experience, the market segment for the organization needs to expand. The current segment takes care of market which is fashion conscious and would not mind spending money to make a style statement. However as stated earlier this segment is also not very brand loyal and is more likely to switch at the first alternative available. In such case

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

All Quiet on the Western Front Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

All Quiet on the Western Front - Essay Example This movie managed to recreate the horrors of war on the screen, with an intensity that was not only gripping and awe-inspiring in those times but has conclusively sustained its relevance and appeal, even today. Lewis Milestone, with an essentially cinematic panache and finesse, managed to unravel the conflict inherent between the youthful yearning for fame and heroism and the frustrating violence and irony that waited for a group of greenhorns who trudged their way to the battlefield, enveloped in an aura of grandeur and great expectations. The theme and cinematographic techniques exploited in the movie were to set the pace for the future war movies. â€Å"All Quiet on the Western Front† unraveled the basic accouterments of modern warfare, be it gut wrenching hunger and maddening insecurity, disturbing bloodshed and the pain of losing friends, the essential trauma that accompanies an unromantic death, with an intensity that is gripping and unsettling at the same time. Even today, the primary misconception that is the bane of Hollywood war movies is the unrelenting belief that a war movie to be successful has to inevitably rely on the grandeur and mammoth scale of the battle sequences, pepped up by a generous usage of war machinery, fanfare, and special effects. Milestone shattered such notions of magnanimity by letting this movie evolve beyond a spectacular dependence on costly and elaborate battle scenes, to penetrate deep into the recesses of the human psyche that are inherently averse to violence and bloodshed.... nanimity by letting this movie evolve beyond a spectacular dependence on costly and elaborate battle scenes, to penetrate deep into the recesses of human psyche that are inherently averse to violence and bloodshed. The movie is effectively and genuinely interspersed with intense and isolated scenes, which crystallize the actors' sense of fear, guilt and apprehension in an individualistic yet interrelated moment of time, highlighted by an apt usage of montage sequencing, parallel editing and high key lighting. One such awesome scene is the moment when Paul, while searching for safety and security in the trenches had to kill an enemy soldier, in an instinctive and desperate pursuit for survival. The cinematographer deftly managed to catch the trauma and guilt that takeover Paul, as he helplessly watched the prolonged and slow death of an enemy. Not only this, but the director was skillfully able to sustain Paul's disillusionment, guilt and agony for quiet a long time, accentuating its scope with just the right blend of lighting, sound and acting, which bring forth an enervating sense of claustrophobia laced with apprehension that defined the life in the trenches. This scene happened to be one amongst many such scenes that made this movie an everlasting success. The essential challenge before any anti-war movie is to build on the ubiquity and irrationality of war, which is inherently an anti-hero theme. The director is required to sustain and build upon the meaninglessness and futility of violence up to the level where all perceptions pertaining to the well-defined antagonists and protagonists melt and evaporate, making way for the inevitability of death that does not differentiate between a friend and a foe. The movie under consideration qualifies to be an all-time

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Ethics and Sustainability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Ethics and Sustainability - Essay Example One of the ethical discussions on sustainability is the promotion of artificial products through the widespread application of genetic engineering in plants and animals, and creation of man-made ecosystem to alter the deteriorating ecological balance. Artificial is defined as formulation of something based on natural phenomenon but is completely lacks the intrinsic value of what is natural. Conservative thinkers postulate that incorporating artificial schema on environmental context is morally unjustified because it violates the natural mechanism of things, and in religious context, it defiles the God's creation. Conversely, radical thinkers posit that the integration of artificial schema in the environment is morally permissible because it helps in the prolongation and preservation of life, especially that the world is facing a huge problems on natural resources continuous supplies. Advocators Advocators of anti-artificial schema argue that the promotion of ersatz products necessitates the used of modern technology, and if certain technology is not yet available, then new technology must be invented first for the realisation of a specific artificial products. The problems with this is that most of the time, the actualisation artificial schema post threats on the natural resources because, one, a new technology must be applied to natural things before it can be proven, and if the technology fails, new technologies will be created, which means that the threat on environment will also increase; two, the artificial procedures of preserving life in the expense of our natural environment is becoming vicious because of the belief that preservation of life is justified in any given context, wherein our natural environment suffers greatly from this belief because the environment is only seen as resource that must be utilised for the nourishment of life. On the other hand, proponents of artificial schema conjecture that natural resources is finite and limited, hence the need to manufacture ersatz products in the expense and out of natural resources is permissible because through this, the continually increasing demand for basic human needs will be resolved, as well as, the environment will be preserved. Radical thinkers argue that modern technologies may have repercussions but its benefits are countless. They even stress out that application of artificial schema with the aid of technology is the only way humanity can preserve its environment and its people. Today the world is embracing the artificiality of things; foods products are being engineered, while natural environment are being photocopied such as lagoon, rainforest, etc. to prevent the continuous deterioration of the environment, and to preserve its present status. Thus our modern advancements and artificial schemes have created major environmental positive consequences, as well as, risks that threaten the lives and well-being not only

Monday, October 14, 2019

Five Traits Essay Example for Free

Five Traits Essay 1.Define and discuss the importance of the following traits associated with leaders: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. Is this list all inclusive? a.Intelligence: Having a strong verbal ability, perceptual ability, and reasoning abilities; Leaders intellectual abilities, however, should not differ too much from their subordinates; Intelligence is also defined as a trait that significantly contributes to a leader’s acquisition of complex problem-solving skills and social judgement skills; Intelligent leaders have the ability to consider every situation individually and make an assessment as to what is the best solution. b.Self-Confidence: The ability to be certain about one’s competencies and skills is self-confidence; Includes both self-esteem and self-assurance; Self-confidence is an essential trait for any leader because without self-confidence it may become harder for followers to fully trust their leader c.Determination: Determination is the desire to get a job done and includes characteristics such as initiative, persistence, dominance, and drive; these people are proactive and have the perseverance to face obstacles; this trait is needed in order for leaders and followers to overcome goals. d.Integrity: Integrity is the quality of honesty and trustworthiness; these people are those who adhere to a strong set of principles and take responsibility for their actions; Leaders need integrity in order to inspire confidence in others since they are trusted to do what they say they are going to do. e.Sociability: A leader’s inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships; people who possess sociability are able to create strong relationships with their fellow followers. f.The five traits described above are all traits in which strong leaders possess. While the list is certainly not all-inclusive, these five seem to be essential in order to produce a strong and successful leade r.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Strike Management And Trade Unions Management Essay

Strike Management And Trade Unions Management Essay OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: The main objective of the study by the research paper is to understand the importance of trade union to the organization and vise verses. What are the main functions of unions how they work during strikes? I predicted that throw trade union control would mediate the effects of job-related uncertainty, and that management communication and participation in decision-making would reduce uncertainty and increase feelings of control. The model was tested in a public sector organization as well as government sector organization the results supported it. Management communication is easy throw the trade What is a trade union? A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Originating in Europe, labor unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most jobs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the employers side, causing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid. Trade union organizations may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment Over the last three hundred years, many trade unions have developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing political objectives. Activities of trade unions vary, but may include: What are the functions of a trade union?] Function and benefit of trade unions Association of workers to promote and protect the welfare, interests, and rights of its members; also called labor union In the broadest sense, trade unions came about as a way to protect workers after the industrial revolution in England, where they were working 12 to 14 hour days 6 days a week for whatever the company owner decided he would pay them. Which of course was as little as possible. Not that the need for trade unions was restricted to workers in England. A good read if you want to know what working conditions were like in America in the late 1800s and early 1900s would be Upton Sinclairs The Jungle, BUT BE WARNED there are some truly harrowing scenes in this book, and its publication in the 1920s caused such an uproar that the government created the FDA in an attempt to stop the worst excesses. For a slightly gentler view of the life of the working classes around 1900 America, try Theodore Dreisers Sister Carrie. You should also research the Pullman Corporation, and the Carnegie Steel empire, both of which grabbed back a good part of what little they paid in wages by forcing employees to live in filthy, unmaintained hovels in company towns, and shop at the company store where, of course, they were charged super high prices for everything. If I recall, the first of the American trade unions, and one of the first to strike, were the Pullman car waiters, who were all poor blacks (and referred to, whatever his name might be, as George). For many Americans, all the name Henry Ford means is paying his employees enough to be able to buy one of his cars (of course, you didnt buy a Chevrolet if you worked for Ford.) The power of a union is that the union can collectively bargain for the best possible deal for all its members; not just wages, but the right to live anywhere you wanted and not just in company housing, the number of hours worked, medical benefits, and paid time off. The power of a union is also limited to the solidarity of the members, because the only thing a worker possessed was the ability to walk off the job, so its more effective if everyone walks out and stays out together. Of course, the loss of wages for a man who was earning maybe 6 dollars a week caused huge strain on poor families, and employers had no problem hiring non-union labor to come in and work for the strikers. Ford hated the unions and was the last of the car manufacturers to recognize the right of the workers to organize. The detective agency Pinkertons was originally created to break up strikes by Ford workers at the Dearborn plant in Michigan, and they cheerfully broke up picket lines with shotguns, Billy clubs, and anything else they saw fit, all the while protected or ignored by the police. Many Americans are still prevented from organizing themselves into a union, as is evidenced by the struggle for recognition by the employees at Wal-Mart. Other Americans do not see the need for trade unions; after all, this is America and not Russia. But when you realize that in 1920 there was no medical insurance, no paid maternity leave, no paid day off for Labor Day (ironically Labor Day is to celebrate the gains made for American workers, but of course the Wal-Mart employees and many many others are still required to work on labor day) no paid day off for Presidents day. The right to a 5-day 40 hour workweek was not won until the 1950s. Bear in mind that ANYTHING an employer gives an employee comes directly out of his pocket. DO you think you would have all the benefits you have today if people had not given their lives to the Pinkerton thugs in Dearborn? No. Youd still be working 11 hours a day 6 days a week, with one day off for Christmas. I strongly suggest you do a lot of reading and some internet research if you want to know why you have the benefits you do (and the European benefits, which are even better than yours, because unlike Americans, most European workers did not simply walk away from trade unions (largely, of course, because of the publicity generated by the connection between the Teamsters, Jimmy Hoffa, and the Mob). That should get you started anyway. Be grateful to the unions. OBJECTIVES OF TRADE UNION Industrial Relations :- Trade unions are formed to protect and promote the interests of their members. Their primary function is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labor practices. Trade unions are form Representation Trade unions represent individual workers when they have a problem at work. If an employee feels he is being unfairly treated, he can ask the union representative to help sort out the difficulty with the manager or employer. Unions also offer their members legal representation. Normally this is to help people get financial compensation for work-related injuries or to assist people who have to take their employer to courted to achieve the following objectives: Negotiation Negotiation is where union representatives, discuss with management, the issues which affect people working in an organization. There may be a difference of opinion between management and union members. Trade unions negotiate with the employers to find out a solution to these differences. Pay, working hours, holidays and changes to working practices are the sorts of issues that are negotiated. In many workplaces there is a formal agreement between the union and the company which states that the union has the right to negotiate with the employer. In these organizations, unions are said to be recognized for collective bargaining purposes. Voice in decisions affecting workers The economic security of employees is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of their employment, but also by the managements personal policies which include selection of employees for layoffs, retrenchment, promotion and transfer. These policies directly affect workers. The evaluation criteria for such decisions may not be fair. So, the intervention of unions in such decision making is a way through which workers can have their say in the decision Member services during the last few years, trade unions have increased the range of services they offer their members. These include: Education and training Most unions run training courses for their members on employment rights, health and safety and other issues. Some unions also help members who have left school with little education by offering courses on basic skills and courses leading to professional qualifications. Legal assistance As well as offering legal advice on employment issues, some unions give help with personal matters, like housing, wills and debt. Financial discounts People can get discounts on mortgages, insurance and loans from unions. Welfare benefits One of the earliest functions of trade unions was to look after members who hit hard times. Some of the older unions offer financial help to their members when they are sick or unemployed. WHAT IS A ATRIKE? A strike is when a group of workers agree to stop working. They do this when they want to protest against something they think is unfair where they work. Strikes sometimes happen so that politicians have to listen more carefully to the workers. Why do workers go on strike? Workers go on strike for different reasons: to get improvements where they work for more money for shorter working days to stop their wages going down because they think their company has been unfair. TYPES OF STRIKES The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) provides legal protections for two kinds of strikes, economic strikes and unfair labor practices strikes. The former is a strike that is undertaken by workers in order to garner improvements in their wages, benefits, hours, or working conditions. An unfair labor practices strike is an action that has far more serious legal implications for small business owners. This kind of strike occurs in instances where the employer allegedly violates NLRA rules that protect workers during collective bargaining. Typical violations that prompt an unfair labor practices strike include refusing to pay benefits when theyre due, discharging an employee for engaging in union activities, and refusing to bargain in good faith, reported J.D. Thorne in Small Business Reports. An unfair labor practices strike not only threatens a loss of business, but also requires that you return picketing workers to their jobs when the strike ends. Therefore, you must fire loyal r eplacement workers who crossed the picket line to work-and helped keep your business afloat. Businesses that do not do so are liable for back pay starting on the date that striking workers made their unconditional offer to return to work. Given the added risks associated with an unfair labor practices strike, then, Thorne contended that the most important aspect of managing an economic strike-the most common type-is to prevent it from becoming an unfair labor practices strike. Thorne noted that employer actions that could trigger this transformation include blatant ones, such as discharging an employee for engaging in his or her right to strike or withholding benefits (earned vacation time, pension-plan eligibility, etc.) as well as more subtle ones that nonetheless violate the National Labor Relations Act. The issue of communications with union members, for instance, is rife with rules that can ensnare the unknowing small business owner. These communication rules apply both to the pre-strike and strike periods. Following are specific guidelines that small businesses should adhere to in negotiations: Continue to bargain in good faith throughout the process. Both sides have a continuing responsibility to engage in good faith collective bargaining, wrote Thorne, which means that you must meet with the union with the intent of reaching an agreement about the workers demands. Failure to do so also could convert the nature of a strike. Provide unions with all information to which they are legally entitled. Under U.S. labor law, unions can request information about managements plans regarding various operational aspects of the business during the strike. For example, the union can ask for information about where the business plans to get replacement workers and the wages that they will be paid. Know management rights. Many legal protections are in place to protect workers from unfair management practices, but business owners have rights, too. Thorne noted, for instance, that businesses can discuss and clarify with striking employees how their proposal differs from that of the union leadership, and they can ask employees to vote to accept your final offer when its presented for ratification. Many strike situations also give them the option of utilizing replacement workers without penalty. Nonetheless, businesses should be aware that there are many legal dos and donts associated with management-union interactions during collective bargaining and strike periods, and they should make sure that they have adequate legal representation to assist them in this area. HOW TO MANAGING A STRIKE The beginning of an employee strike is almost always a difficult period for small business owners. The adversarial nature of such actions can be jarring for company leaders who are unfamiliar with strikes, and the walk-out itself can threaten small-and midsized business owners with devastating economic consequences (large companies can be hurt by strikes, too, of course, but their very existence is not usually jeopardized). Given this reality, small business owners and their management teams must take steps to ensure that their companies will be able to continue their operations during the strike. As Brenda Paik Sunoo wrote in Personnel Journal, a strike will inevitably pose challenges in many areas: managing contingent workers; setting up communication between management and all employees; maintaining customer service; establishing interim policies regarding benefits, overtime, vacations, and sick leave; and bolstering non-striking employees morale. Clearly, those that prepare well in advance will suffer the least trauma during and after a labor dispute. Indeed, business experts universally agree that advance planning is key to managing a strike. They note that few companies can claim that they were caught flat-footed by a work stoppage. Most strikes occur when labor contracts expire, and even those that do not take place on such a specific date typically provide management with plenty of warning signs. Businesses that prepare for contract expirations and other potential strike periods by drawing up detailed contingency plans in advance will be much better equipped to weather a strike than will those firms that wait until the last minute. In recognition of this reality, Risk Management noted in 1998 that increasing numbers of companies have created management teams-sometimes called strike contingency planning teams (SCPTs)-to address potential strike issues. Advance preparation efforts should cover a broad spectrum of operational areas. For example, businesses should have a plan in place to put together a contingent work force, whether comprised of replacements, non-striking employees (often supervisory personnel), or a combination of the two. A company that maintains information on recent job applicants, for example, may find itself better positioned to form a contingent work force than a firm that neglects to do so. Contingent work forces will also need training on a variety of issues, from duties to customer relations to legal matters (non-striking personnel already employed by the company may well need this training as well, since they will in many cases be undertaking unfamiliar tasks and interacting with customers and suppliers with whom they may not be familiar. Appropriate training programs should be in place well before a strike, not cobbled together after a strike actually occurs. Employers will also have to prepare interim pol icies governing various human resource issues for both striking and non-striking workers. Companies facing strike actions should also make sure that their customers and suppliers are notified at appropriate times of that possibility. If your company suddenly announces to a major customer that your facility has been hit with a strike without providing that customer without any prior warning, you are likely to lose that customer for good, even after the labor dispute has been resolved. Businesses facing strikes should also make preparations for alternative service to valued clients and customers. Another key to successful strike management, say labor experts, is for management to maintain a professional stance throughout. Many labor disputes disintegrate into intensely negative clashes, with repercussions that are felt long after the strike itself has been settled. Small business owners should do their best to prevent negotiations from becoming acrimonious. Owners who are capable of empathy with their striking employees concerns about job security and economic wellbeing will be better able to manage this than will those who automatically dismiss all work stoppages as solely an outgrowth of union greed. Finally, business owners should plan ahead to make sure that they have adequate security if a strike takes place. Strikes, by their very nature, are adversarial, stated Sunoo. They often are accompanied by disruptions in service and product delivery, and sometimes even violence. Savvy businesses will contact local legal and governmental authorities in advance to discuss issues such as picket lines, responses to disturbances, etc. In addition, businesses at risk of being the target of a work stoppage will often need to hire security forces to monitor the premises and protect their contingent work force. The role of security is twofold, said one security expert in an interview with Personnel Journal: 1) providing managers and non-striking employees with assurances that they can go to work without being injured, and 2) gathering evidence of any strike-related misconduct on the part of strikers for later use in legal proceedings. Companies seeking security service have a number of options from which to choose, including their own personnel, local off-duty law enforcement personnel, and local security firms that provide security guards. Experts recommend that companies seeking security help look to firms with previous strike experience and avoid local security firms unless they can get assurances that none of their guards have any meaningful social or familial relationship to any of the strikers. SOME EXAMPLES OF ST RIKES:- Wildcat strikes These are sudden unofficial strikes. They are not organized by a trade union, but union members might be involved. Wildcat action can start because of what seems to be a small problem, like the length of a tea break or the treatment of one worker. They might start small but if workers are angry with their bosses the strikes can spread fast and cause a lot of problems. What are pickets? Pickets are workers who are on strike that stand at the entrance to their workplace. The purpose of picketing is: to stop or persuade workers not to go to work to tell the public about the strike to persuade workers to take their unions side . ARTICLES:- 1.Express staff threaten strike Stephen Brook, press correspondent guardian.co.uk, Thursday 2 November 2006 18.40 GMT Article history Union staff at Express newspapers will ballot for industrial action unless management withdraws its plans for 35 staff redundancies, a union meeting decided tonight. The National Union of Journalists chapel committee for the Daily and Sunday Express and Daily and Sunday Star were due to tell management tonight of its resolution, which was passed by about 200 chapel members with one abstention and one no vote. This chapel demands that management immediately calls a halt to its plan for wholesale redundancies among staff and casuals, the resolution stated. We instruct our officers to put in motion the necessary processes to ballot for industrial action should this not be immediately forthcoming. Late last Friday, the papers parent company, Northern Shell, told chapel committee members it would make 35 job cuts and close the business section of the Daily Express, outsourcing it to the Press Association. The union says this would result in up to 60 job losses, including casuals and other contributors. Other cuts will also see the news and features production departments merge, as will the Daily and Sunday Express travel sections. ABSTRACT FROM THE ABOVE:- 2. Government intervention to prevent airline mechanics strike On February 9, the governments National Mediation Board released the mechanics union at Northwest Airlines to prepare for a strike. This release came only after the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association, the union for the 10,000 mechanics, carried out public picketing, saying the board was taking the companys side and holding the contract hostage. The mechanics have been working four and a half years without a new contract. The old one they were stuck with contained big wage concessions. Meanwhile the company has been reaping big profits. Nevertheless, even while releasing the union for a strike, the board declared a 30-day cooling off period. It also urged President Bush to prevent any strike, saying a strike threatens substantially to deprive a section of the country of essential transportation service, meaning the near monopoly of Northwest Airlines at the Minneapolis-St Paul, Detroit and Memphis airports. The Bush Administration issued a statement that it wasnt going to allow a strike to occur. All the members of the National Mediation Board were appointed by President Clinton. The three person board from the start had a majority of management members. Its chairman, Francis Duggan, was a vice president of the Association of American Railroads; member Magdalena Jacobsen was a labor relations manager for Continental Airlines. In 1997, Clinton broke the American Airlines pilots strike after 7 minutes by appointing an emergency board to oversee the situation. Now Bush is announcing he will do the same thing Clinton did. When in gets down to basics -like preventing strikes -the only difference between a Democrat and a Republican is whether they smile at you when plunging in the knife. 3. Air India pilots to go on strike from 24 Nov The Air India management came unprepared for the meeting, claimed Otaal Mumbai: The Indian Commercial Pilots Association, or ICPA, at state-owned airline Air India, on Monday, said it will strike work beginning 24 November. The decision comes after a Monday meeting with the Central Labour Commissioner and Air India management was inconclusive. The talks were inconclusive. The Central Labour Commissioner has called for another meeting on 20 November but we are going ahead with our strike decision and we will serve a strike notice tomorrow in two week advance, said ICPA general secretary R. S. Otaal told Mint on the telephone. ICPA currently has at least 800 members. A spokesperson for National Aviation Co of India Ltd or Nacil, that runs Air India, declined comment for this story. The Air India management came unprepared for the meeting, claimed Otaal. Our demand is the same about clearing salary dues. We are fed up with the dues from the productivity linked incentives (PLIs). The cash-strapped airline had suggested a 50% cut in the PLI to save save about Rs700 crore. PLIs currently account for 30% to 50% of Air India employees wages. PLIs have not been paid since August. The national carrier, which has cumulative losses of Rs7,226 crore for financial years 2008 and 2009, has asked the government for a loan and equity infusion of around Rs15,000 core. Air Indias borrowings increased to Rs15,241 crore at the end of June, up from Rs6,550 crore in November 2007. 4. India airport strike threatens to paralyze travel Airport workers across India threatened to strike at midnight on Tuesday, a move that could ground hundreds of commercial flights and leave NEW DELHI Airport workers across India threatened to strike at midnight on Tuesday, a move that could ground hundreds of commercial flights and leave tens of thousands of passengers stranded. The threatened strike is over plans to privatize two major airports, but workers are expected to join in at 127 other state-run airports nearly every airport in India except New Delhi and Mumbai, the two busiest airports, which are already privately run. S. R. Santhanam, a leader of the airport workers union, said the decision to launch an open-ended strike starting at midnight Tuesday was made after talks with the government broke down Monday. No talks are scheduled unless the government sends a message, he said, adding that some 15,000 airport workers, including baggage handlers, cleaners and ground staff would go on strike. The dispute between stems from a government plan to privatize new airports in the southern cities of Hyderabad and Bangalore, a move that union says will endanger the jobs of hundreds of employees. Airport authorities plan to shift all commercial activity from the cities old airports to the new ones when they open in coming weeks. Hyderabad and Bangalore are both large cities that are home to several major multinational corporations as well as scores of thriving information technology companies. The government plans to use the old airports for disaster management and flights carrying government leaders, aviation ministry spokeswoman Moushmi Chakravarty said. Chakravarty said the private operators would retain the employees. However, the unions worry that there could be future layoffs. Subhash Goyal, chairman of the Indian Association of Tour Operators, said any strike could cost the booming aviation sector millions of dollars. It will have a tremendous impact on travelers, he said. Indias airline industry has grown dramatically in recent years as rising incomes and loosened regulations put air travel within reach of millions of new customers. In the early 1990s, Indian Airlines was the countrys single carrier, but Indian authorities opened up the airways and since then about a dozen airlines have opened for business, leading to a heated competition and low prices. 5. Strike and police brutality at Honda Motorcycle and Scooter India, 2005 Submitted by Steven. on Jan 8 2010 01:00 Prol-Position on the violent, month-long strike/lockout of HMSI workers in India in 2005, which ended with the employers giving into many of the workers demands. The following summary relies entirely on media reports we couldnt get hold of any first hand reports from comrades. The month-long strike/lock-out at HMSI and the police attack on the workers caused a big stir in India. This is mainly due to the location of   the strike: a modern factory of a multinational company in a developing region which up to that point was not seen as prone to industrial disputes. The conflict at Honda threatened to become a spark in a generally tense atmosphere within Indias modern international industry. Therefore the police brutality against the workers cant be understood as a mere response to a single workers struggle, but must rather be explained by the general situation in the new investment zones (see also Newsletter 3 on call centers in India). In order to understand the political significance of the dispute for the Indian economy we recommend you read the detailed analysis of the Indian group Rupee. They describe the increased dependence of the Indian economy on foreign capital influx since the crash in 1991, the new privatization schemes and the other, dark side , of India Shining (the Indian boom). About the Region Gurgaon is situated in the state of Haryana, close to New Delhi, a town in a rural area without any tradition of workers struggles. The new town centre is characterized by modern office blocks and shopping malls. Companies such as Microsoft, IBM and Nokia have their headquarters here. The government of Haryana implemented strict anti-union labor laws in order to attract further foreign investment. The industrial zone mushroomed during the last five years and comprises 90 factories, with a large share of companies in the automobile sector. About 70 percent of all motor-scooters produced in India are said to be produced in this region. Japanese companies play an important role, given that Japan is Indias fourth biggest foreign investor and about three quarters of all Japanese companies in India are situated in Gurgaon. The AITUC is the most important union in Gurgaon, it is supported by the CPI(M). The Communist Parties of India have a difficult role to play. On the one hand, they have to make an effort to appear to support the workers, including by patriotic propaganda against foreign investors. On the other, they have the duties of governing parties. West Bengal is a CP-led state and attracts the second greatest amount of foreign investment of all Indian states. Shortly before the incidents in Gurgaon the government of West Bengal signed a 500 Million US-Dollar deal with Mitsubishi. The Situation in the Modern Industrial Sector The struggle in Gurgaon took place against the background of various conflicts within the modern industrial sector which often resulted in significant wage improvements for the workers. At HMSI the management claims that the workers already received a 100 percent wage raise in the previous year. In June 2005 the workers at Toyota in Bangalore demanded a 100 percent wage increase. The management promised 25 percent and was able to avoid industrial action. At the car part suppliers Speedo ax, Hitachi Electrics and Omax Auto, all situated in Gurgaon, industrial disputes were only settled a few days before the police attack on the HMSI workers. Apart from a booming, but still modest, automobile export industry more and more electronic device companies (mobile phones etc.) are opening their factories in India. Companies like Solectron and Flextronics have recently increased their investment in the sub-continent. The individual ownership of mobile phones has increased from 6 million in 200 0 to 50 million in 2005 and is supposed to grow by 20 million each year. The automobile export sector is still confined to a few companies and models (Toyota, Hyundai, Ford, Fiat, Skoda, Suzuki and Mahindra), exporting about 130,000 cars in 2004, but the sector, particularly the car component industry, is growing. About the factory The factory is modern, only four years old. The plant churns out 2,000 scooters per day and employs about 1,900 to 2,500 workers. In 2004 HMSI is said to have sold 550,000 scooters in India. Scooters and other two-wheelers are still the most important means of motorised transport in India. In 2003-04 about 5,625,000 motorcycles were sold, compared to 850,000 cars. Most of the workers are hired by subcontractors or only get daily contracts. The wages are poor, securing mere survival. A lot of workers come from the surrounding small villages or even from othe

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Rap is Crap Essay examples -- essays research papers

Rap is Crap â€Å"She ain’t nuttin but a hoochie mama†¦Smackin’ on your lips, put your hands on your hips†¦She ain’t nuttin but a hoochie mama†¦Oh I love those big brown eyes and the way you shake your thighs, acting like you’re so damn cute...† Rap music with lyrics like this play on the radio and in home stereos every day. Rap music pounds messages of sex and violence into the minds of young adults leaving behind their sexist and repetitive influential messages. Music has a very powerful influence on our emotions, moods, and behavior. Rap music influences teenagers negatively by increasing violent attitudes and promoting sexual aggression against women. Very few people would argue the power of music. Mothers use it to rock their babies to sleep. Patriotic hymns can be used at rallies to evoke strong emotions of nationalism. Ballads have been used to incite rebellion. Some governments have viewed music so powerful that they ban it. In white dominated South Africa, centers of African music were destroyed and western music was declared forbidden in China during the Cultural Revolution. Is music powerful enough to incite antisocial and violent behavior? According Johnson, Jackson and Gatto’s study on the deleterious effects of exposure to rap music, subjects in the violent exposure conditions (rap music) expressed greater acceptance of violence. Subjects in the violent exposure condition also reported a higher probability that they would engage in violence (Johnson). Music plays an i...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Art Over Life Essay

An ode is a form of lyric poetry where the poet reveals his personality. He shares his thoughts, feelings and opinions as we see through his eyes. Keats’s odes were very majestic and full of imagination. The two poems Ode to a Nightingale and Ode on a Grecian Urn are very similar in their structure and message. Keats was tired of the mortal world and could only see the negative things in his life and so he looked for an escape. It wasn’t only his own pain that depressed him, it was the pain of his brother who was dying and we can see evidence of this in this quote; â€Å"The weariness, the fever, the fret. Here, where men sit and hear each other groan. Where palsy shakes a few last grey hairs. † Both Ode to a Nightingale and Ode to a Grecian Urn have similarities in them. In Ode to a Nightingale and Ode the speaker opens with a declaration of his own heartache. He feels as if he is numb and â€Å"as though of hemlock I had drunk,† he then addresses a nightingale he hears singing somewhere in the forest. He says in this opening stanza that he is not envious of the nightingale because it is so happy. Keats appreciated nature and saw it in some ways superior to humans. In â€Å"Ode To A Grecian Urn† Keats imagine what the people on the urn were doing when the picture on the urn was painted. He reflects on the idea of a thing of beauty living on past his lifetime and he rejoices in the fact that the urn will never change. As you can see in both poems Keats’s glee is based on the fact that both the Nightingales song and the people on the Urn will never change and they will live on past his lifetime. This is the same for Keats’s poems; all the beauty within them live on past Keats’s lifetime and generation. Both poems convey immortality one through a living thing and one through a still object. We can almost sense that Keats uses beauty in his poems to escape the harsh life of the mortal world and he sees beauty in things that are not human. This is the case in both of the poems. Beauty is almost compensation for life and Keats fully appreciates beauty and escapes through writing about beauty. He realises then at the end of the Ode to a Nightingale poem that escaping to the nightingale’s world is not as good as the mortal world. He bases this decision on the fact that in the mortal you experience both the good and bad intensely but this is better than no intense feeling at all. There is also a complicated ending in â€Å"Ode To A Grecian Urn† in the part he says â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty, – and that is all ye know on earth, and all ye need to know†.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

How to Communicate Bad News Effectively Essay

Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical to effective communication between participants. A business can flourish when all objectives of the organization are achieved effectively. For efficiency in an organization, all the people of the organization must be able to convey their message properly. Business communication is the process of establishing a common understanding between or among people within a business environment. Business communication is any communication used to build partnerships, intellectual resources, to promote an idea, a product, and service, with the objective of creating value for your business. Business communication involves constant flow of information. Business communication here plays a very important role in process of directing and controlling the people in the organization. There should be effective communication between superiors and subordinators in an organization, between organization and society at large it is essential for success and growth of an organization. Communication gaps should not occur in any organization. Business communication is goal oriented. The rules, regulations and policies of a company have to be communicated to people  within and outside the organization. Business communication is regulated by certain rules and norms . Effective communication helps in building goodwill of an organization. Importance of business communication to managers Business managers should be able to communicate in number style. -Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to mark. -Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps in identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. -Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individuals attitudes, i.e. a well-informed individual will have better attitude than a less –informed individual. -Communication also helps in socializing: in today’s life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. The flow of communication in an organization The flow of communication in an organization can be in the form of : Downward Communication – flow of information from higher level in an organization to a lower level in an organization. In other words, communication from a superior to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work related information to the employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by managers for providing feedback on employees’ performance, giving job instructions, Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees. Upward Communication – flow of information from lower authority to higher authority. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning. The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their superiors. The subordinates also use upward communication to tell how well they have understood the downward communication. It can also be used by the employees to share their views and ideas and to participate in the decision making process. Upward  communication leads to a more committed and loyal workforce in an organization because the employees are given a chance to raise and speak dissatisfaction issues to the higher levels. The managers get to know about the employees feelings towards their jobs, peers, supervisors and organization in general. Managers can thus accordingly take actions for improved things. Horizontal Communication – flow of information among peers within the same work unit. This is the communication between peers, between managers at same levels or between any horizontal equivalent organizational members. Cross-Channel Communication – exchange of information among employees in different work units who are neither subordinates nor superior to one another. Negative /Bad message Bad message – â€Å"†¦situations where there is either a feeling of no hope, a threat to a person’s mental or physical well-being, a risk of upsetting an established lifestyle, or where a message is given which conveys to an individual fewer choices in his or her life.† Both of the downward and cross channel communication can be related to the concept of relating bad message to an employee. It can be said that how you communicate that bad message will have a significant impact on your organization and its reputation. Bad message can be in any form, it can be i.Termination of appointment ii.Laying off employees iii.Failure in an interview iv.Dealing with bad performance v.Communicating a bad financial situation vi.Rejection of a proposal, among others Communicating bad message is the most difficult information to convey. To those it affects though, it is the most important communication of all. Delivering bad news can be the worst part of the job for any manager. That’s not because the truth, on its face, is difficult to convey. It’s the anxiety of the possibility of handling it poorly and knowing that doing so can worsen the impact on your employees, their productivity, and your whole  company. Any communication can be challenging even when the news being delivered is positive, but when delivered is negative is known as bad message. In business a letter, memo or email that conveys negative or unpleasant information- information that is likely to disappoint, upset, or even anger a reader. Bad messages include rejections (in response to job applications, promotion requests, and the like) negative evaluations, and announcements of policy changes that don’t benefit the reader. What constitutes bad message Bad message is a fact of life for all business professionals, from rejecting job applicants to downturn speaking invitations. Bad message means the reader or the person receiving the news will not be able to accomplish his/her goals. Bad message directly can often be very damaging and unnecessarily hurtful. Goals of communicating bad message Goals are clearly needed a lot to accomplish in one message. These are some of the goals you can develop negative/bad messages that reduce the stress for everyone involved and improve the effectiveness of your communication efforts. There are two goals in communicating bad news we have the primary and secondary goal. Primary goals i. Make the receiver understand the bad news. ii. Help the receiver accept the bad news. iii. Maintain a positive image of you and your organization. Secondary goals i. Reduce bad feelings ii. Convey fairness iii. Eliminate future correspondence iv. Avoid creating legal liability or responsibility for you or your organization. v. Choose appropriate tone and organization Using the 3 writing process Step 1: Plan Your Message When planning your message, you can’t avoid the fact that your audience does not want to hear what you have to say. To minimize the damage to business relationships and to encourage the acceptance of your message, analyze the situation carefully to better understand the context in which the recipient will process your message. Be sure to consider your purpose thoroughly whether it’s straightforward or of more complicated (such as creating a negative performance review, in which you not only give the employee feedback on past performance but also help the person develop a plan to improve future performance.) Similarly, your receiver profile can be simple and obvious in some situations and far more complex in others (such as telling a business partner that you’ve decided to terminate the partnership.) With a clear purpose and your audience’s needs in mind, identify and gather the information your audience will need in order to understand and accept your message. Bad messages can be intensely personal to the recipient, and in many cases recipients have a right to expect a thorough explanation of your answer. Selecting the right medium is critical when delivering bad messages. For example, you might badly damage a business relationship if you use voice mail to reject a long-time employee’s request for a promotion. Since the employee would surely have some important questions to ask, and you would certainly want to soothe hurt feelings, a face-to-face meeting would be the best choice for this situation. Step 2: Write Your Message When conveying a bad message to your colleague, every aspect of effective, diplomatic writing is amplified; after all, the audience does not want to hear a bafd message and might disagree strongly with you. Be sure to maintain the you-attitude, and strive for polite language that emphasizes the positive whenever appropriate. If your credibility hasn’t already been established with an audience, lay out your qualifications for making the decision in question. Recipients of bad messages who don’t think you are credible are more likely to challenge your decision. That’s why, for example, messages related to late payments are often signed by a higher executive. And as always, projecting and protecting your company’s image is a prime concern. If you’re not careful, a negative answer could spin out of control into negative feelings about your company. When you use language that conveys respect and avoids an accusing tone, you protect your audience’s pride. In addition, you can ease the sense of disappointment by using positive words rather than negative ones. Chances are you’ll spend more time on word, sentence, and paragraph choices for negative/bad messages than for any other type of business writing. People who receive bad message often look for subtle shares of meaning, seeking flaws in your reasoning or other ways to challenge the decision. By writing clearly and sensitively, you can take some of the sting out of the bad message and sensitively, you can take some of the sting out of bad news and help your reader to accept your decision and to move on. Step 3: Complete Your Message Your need for carefully pay attention to detail continues as you complete your message. Revise your content to make sure everything is clear, complete, and concise – bearing in mind that even small flaws are magnified as listeners react to your negative news. Produce clear, professional documents, and proofread carefully to eliminate mistakes. Finally, be especially sure that your negative messages are delivered promptly and successfully. Waiting for bad message is hard enough without wondering whether a message was lost. CHOOSING THE BEST APPROACH Conveying bad message to a colleague is never a pleasant task but breaking it at the wrong time or in the wrong way can be the worse, so it’s important  to know the best approaches to breaking bad news. When writing bad message, you will need to choose the direct or indirect approach; however, there are no clear guidelines to help you choose in every case. Ask yourself the following questions to guide your message: i. Will the bad news come as a shock? ii. Does the recipient prefer short messages that get right to the point? iii. How important is this news to the recipient? iv. Do you need to maintain a close working relationship with the recipient? v. Do you need to get the recipient’s attention? vi. What is your organization’s preferred style? vii. How much follow-up communication do you want? CHOOSING POSITIVE WORDS Examples of negative phrasings| Positive alternatives| Your request does not make any sense| Please clarify your request| Due to unforeseen circumstances: I won’t be able to attend your meeting| Because my flight has been delayed I will miss for your meeting.| Unfortunately we haven’t received your payment.| Your payment hasn’t arrived yet.| The enclosed signature is wrong| Please recheck the enclosed signature.| | | | APPROACHES TO DELIVERING BAD MESSAGE The direct approach and the indirect approach Effective bad news messages convey the negative information the receiver must receive with an eye toward keeping future business. Without even thinking about it, you’ve probably been using both the direct and indirect approaches to deliver bad news your entire life. When you come right out and tell somebody some bad news, you’re using a direct approach. When you try to soften the impact by easing your way into the conversation before delivering the bad news, you’re using an indirect approach. Chances are that you’ve already developed an instinctive feel for which approach to use in many situations. In conveying your message, you will need to make a similar choice whenever you deliver bad news; however, there are no clear guidelines to help you choose in every case. Most bad news messages will be better accepted by our listeners if we use the indirect approach. The care we take to soften the blow will result in effective messages that consider the readers’ feelings and keeping their business. The direct approach We use the direct message when the receiver i. Prefers bad news first ii. Is emotionally uninvolved iii. Will be unaffected by the bad news The Indirect Approach for bad Messages The indirect approach helps recipient prepare for the bad message by presenting the reasons for the bad message first. When done right, it doesn’t obscure bad message, delay it, or limits your responsibility. Rather, the indirect approach eases the blow and help recipient accept the situation. 1. Open with a buffer A buffer expresses your appreciation for being thought of, assures the reader of your attention to the request, compliments the recipient, or indicates your understanding of the recipient’s needs. A buffer must not insult the audience with insincere flattery or self-promoting blather. Because it sets the stage for the bad news to follow, it must be both sincere and relevant so that readers don’t feel they are being set up. The first step in using the indirect approach is to start with a buffer, a neutral, non-controversial statement that is closely related to the point of the message. A buffer establishes common ground with your listener; moreover, if you’re responding to a request, a buffer validates that request. Some critics believe that using a buffer is manipulative and unethical, even dishonest. However, buffers are unethical only if they’re insincere or deceptive. Showing consideration for the feelings of others is never dishonest. Here are several types of effective buffers you could use to tactfully open a bad message. viii. Appreciation (Thank you for applying for a change of duties). ix. Agreement (We both know how hard it is to make a profit in this industry). x. Cooperation xi. Understanding xii. Praise Here are some other things to avoid when using a buffer to open a bad message: xiii. Avoid saying â€Å"no.† xiv. Avoid using a know-it-all tone. xv. Avoid wordy and irrelevant phrases and sentences. xvi. Avoid apologizing. xvii. Avoid using a buffer that is too long 2. Provide Reasons: By giving your reasons effectively, you help maintain focus on the issues at hand and defuse the emotions that always accompany significantly bad news. As you lay out your reasons, guide your readers’ responses by starting with the most positive point’s first and moving forward to increasingly negative ones. Provide enough detail for the receiver to understand your reasons, but be concise; a long, roundabout explanation will just make your audience impatient. Your reasons need to convince your receiver that your decision is justified, fair, and logical. 3. Continue with a Clear Statement of the Bad News: First, de-emphasize the bad message: Minimize the space or time devoted to the bad news—without trivializing it or withholding any important information. Subordinate bad news in a complex or compound sentence (â€Å"My department is already shorthanded, so I’ll need all my staff for at least the next two months†) This construction pushes the bad news into the middle of the sentence, the point of least emphasis. Embed bad news in the middle of a paragraph or use parenthetical expression (â€Å"Our profits, which are down, are only part of the picture†). However, keep in mind that it’s possible to abuse de-emphasis. For instance,  if the primary point of your message is that profits are down, it would be inappropriate to marginalize that news by burying it in the middle of a sentence. Second, use a conditional (if or when) statement to imply that the audience could have received, or might someday receive, a favorable answer (â€Å"When you have more managerial experience, you are welcome to reapply†). Such a statement could motivate applicants to improve their qualifications. Third, emphasize what you can do or have done, rather than what you cannot do. (â€Å"The five positions currently open have been filled with people whose qualification match those uncovered in our research†). By focusing on the positive and implying the bad news, you make the impact less personal. When implying bad news, be sure your audience understands the entire message – including the bad news. Withholding negative information or overemphasizing positive information is unethical and unfair to your reader. If an implied message might lead to uncertainty, state your decision in direct terms. Just be sure to avoid overly blunt statements that are likely to cause pain and anger. TECHNIQUES FOR CUSHIONING THE BAD MESSAGE i. Position the bad news strategically, avoid the spotlight: Put the bad news in the middle of a paragraph halfway through the message ii. Use a long sentence: Don’t put the bad news in a short, simple sentence. iii. Place the bad message in a subordinate clause: Although we have no opening for an individual with your qualifications at this time, we are pleased that you thought of us when you started your job search. iv. Be clear but not overly graphic v. Imply the refusal vi. Suggest a compromise or an alternative vii. Consider using the passive voice: Passive-voice verbs focus attention on actions rather than on personalities. They are useful in being tactful. COMMUNICATING BAD MESSAGE EFFECTIVELY 5CS Once you have carefully choosing the approach you would use to communicate effectively using these techniques you should know that the objective of a bad message is to convey the bad news without bruising the reader’s feelings. 5Cs to communicate bad message effectively i. Cutbacks: Avoid statements that might involve the company in legal actions. One thing that won’t be appreciated right now is sugar coating. Don’t wrap the news in pretty paper or dance around it. Plainly specify who, what, where, and how. ii. Context: Explain the reasons for the problem don’t be out of context be on point and give reasons, do not deviate from the reason to please the listener. iii. Compassion: Try as much as possible not to blame anyone around the resulting condition. Respect and proactively acknowledge natural emotions. iv. Candor: Candor means the quality of being open and honest in expression. The truth may hurt, but any attempt to mislead is unforgiveable. v. Consistency: Conform yourself in conveying the news for the sake of accuracy and fairness. Everything communicates avoid saying one thing and doing another. ELEMENTS /TIP OF BAD MESSAGE OF COMMUNICATION i. Set the stage: When framing your delivery of the message, first try to get into their heads and think about what’s important to them. Think about how the news will impact the audience and also think about how it impacts you. Then relay that information. By revealing your personal feelings about the situation, you can build a rapport and practice empathy that can help to fend off the audience’s natural reactions which may be anger, resentment or any number of other feelings. ii. Be direct: Avoid talking too much and clouding the issues. It’s important to succinctly explain the situation and the steps that must be taken. Don’t try to sugar coat the message because you’ll likely end up confusing your audience. iii. Acknowledge the problem: When bad news has to be delivered despite the hard work and efforts of the team, it is imperative that you acknowledge and recognize their efforts and then carefully explain the decision along with the plan for turning things around. iv. Know what you want the audience to feel, think or do after they hear your news. Then, as you’re framing your delivery, be sure to communicate the facts, the steps that are being taken, and what you need them to do. v. Practice: As with just about anything, practice makes perfect. By rehearsing the conversation, you’ll become more comfortable and confident about what needs to be said. And, when you deliver the news with confidence, your audience is much more likely to not only respect you, but also be able to accept that the bad news is out there and you’re now doing everything you can to make things right. vi. Stay on topic: When having to deliver bad news, it’s very easy to take an off-ramp and become side-tracked as a way to avoid the inevitable. By doing this, you’re only making the task harder for yourself and more confusing for your audience. vii. Don’t let your audience steer the conversation: Bad news can make people emotional, particularly when it involves performance feedback or the need to terminate employment. Acknowledge the other person’s feelings, give them a minute (or 10) to collect themselves, and move forward with the conversation. Putting it off for another day doesn’t help anyone in the long run. viii. Provide alternatives: When it’s necessary to provide critical feedback, it’s necessary to also provide alternative actions as well as a timeline for completion. While you may have some concrete ideas for actions that need to be taken, you’ll be better served by following the next two steps before firming up your plan. ix. Ask for feedback: Ask your audience open-ended questions that are directly related to the issue at hand and do what you can to make the environment safe enough to allow the person or people to feel comfortable sharing their thoughts and ideas. x. Listen. : By not speaking and trying to fill in the gaps in the conversation, you are opening the door for the other person to provide feedback and to communicate what they really think. In addition, make sure you’re actively listening to what they have to say rather than thinking about how great it will be when the conversation is finally over. By listening, you’ll be much better able to work with the person or team to move beyond the bad message and begin the work that needs to be done to rectify the situation. DON’TS IN COMMUNICATING BAD MESSAGE i. Do not make promises about the future that may not hold true. ii. Do not overreact. iii. Do not try to protect others from bad news or yourself from sharing it. iv. Don’t make initial statement or announcement through emails. v. Don’t flout company policy if you want to share something you have been asked not to. vi. Don’t let the receiver hear the news outside. vii. Don’t communicate bad news through text messages. viii. Don’t hide behind company policy.