Saturday, March 30, 2019

Theories of Interpersonal Perception and Self Presentation

Theories of Inter soulfulnessal Perception and Self PresentationChristian S. Bautista affectionate psychology Inter mortalal RelationshipSolomon Asch (1946) found out that when cultivation is given to the highest degree a nonher soulfulness, some parts of that in ecesis be given much importance than early(a)s. He c all(prenominal)ed this central trait, which he state we ar utilize to make decisions about the someoneality of the other psyche. In his warm-cold study, Asch felt that traits kindred warm and cold when consecrate in conjunction with traits like possible or de bourneined produced a completely different overall impressions. However, S. Nauts et al argued that Aschs data (1946), do non provide clear render for a primacy of warmth effect the open-ended responses that were important to Aschs theorizing were not systematically analysed the trait-pair choice measure seems unfit to test primacy of warmth and the results of the rank measure suggest that warmth was not central in determine participants impression.Stereotyping is an assumption we make about other race that maybe unconscious, but that influence our perception of others. Stereotypes faecal matter be disperse into two basic forms individual and group stereotypes. However, negative stereotypes can fall to group polarization and prejudice, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) (cited in Payne, S. and Walker, J., 1996, p 191) classroom experiment illustrated this. Rosenthal and Jacobsons study became popular as it seemed to provide a powerful definition for the low achievement of the so-called disadvantaged students. However, it was also criticized by educational psychologists on conceptual, methodological and statistical grounds. There were numerous attempts to replicate the study, consistently, still about one third of the studies attempting to demonstrate a self-fulfilling prophecy succeeded, and critics said that the phenomenon did not exist because the support was unreliable.TAQ 2 (752 words)ascription possibleness deals with how the cordial perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is poised and how it is combined to form a causal judgement (Fiske, Taylor, 1991). The aim of ascription is to understand how bulk interpret the words and actions of others and their deliver behaviour. An experiment by Thibaut and Riecken in 1955 evinces how the message perceives between someone who is on a high placement and of a let sub due status. In the procedure, the subject interacted with two other persons one is of higher status than the subject and the other of a lower status. Both the person complied with the request of the subject, but when the subject was asked why all(prenominal) one had complied, the result was higher status compliance was put down as internal reason and impertinent reason for the lowest status persons compliance. Furthermore, his evaluation from before to after the compliance was favoured to the highest status person. This study shows both antecedent and consequences of attributions for behaviour. In this study they adopted the ideas from Heider (1944) and Michotte (1963). It was assumed that the subject makes line and decides between internal and external cause for the other persons compliance on the basis of their perceived power. In attributing compliance to internal causes, positive attitudes are credited by the subject to the person. Attributing these qualities to a person has the consequence that the subject pitchs to like the person. In this experiment, essential element of attribution explore is present. The research has hypotheses about the antecedents of causal attribution and the consequences of the subject making particular attributions (Kelley, H. and L. Michela, J.).We tend to perceive that the observed behaviour is due to the qualities of the person, dispositional attribution, rather than due to external force, situational attribution. The passenger who complains about the bus schedule is likely to be regarded as disagreeable rather than in a hurry. A respectful recognize to your manager may be offered because you like her or it may be only because of the superordinate-subordinate situation which exists between you. Heider (1958), who developed the model called the Nave compend of behaviour noted that people generally tend to perceive that military personnel behaviour is somehow ca employ, as it can be used by us in predicting the likelihood of this happening again, rather than being due to chance. We can make two attributions internal attribution, we attribute the behaviour of the person in their personality, character or attitude and external attribution, the inference that the person is behaving in a certain way because of the situation he or she may be in. Heider also noted that a persons behaviour particularly the first impression behaviour is so obligate that observers take it at face value and forget to take equal account of possible situational causes. When we make attribution, we must analyse the situation by going beyond the information given about the disposition of others and yourself as vigorous as the environment and how it may be causing the person to be go in such a manner. However, order and predictability are the consequences in making inferences and inferences current of air to behaviour. Once someone is given an initial estimate found on his observed behaviour, the label sticks and becomes self-validating as that person bequeath continue to behave in the way now expected of him. other attribution theory is Kellys covariation model he developed a logical model for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to the person or stimulus. There are three types of causal information which influence our judgements consistency, consensus and distinctiveness. Consistency is when cause and effect regularly occur unitedly for example you may notice that you fel t irritable in the forenoon after a late night out with little sleep, in fact irritability might occur every cartridge holder you have a very late night. Others also reported the late-night irritability syndrome, this operator you are not unique then the consensus is high. Distinctiveness is whether or not a particular behaviour occurred in the same way in the similar situation. According to Kruglanski (1977), people do not just naively come across situation but bring to each neighborly situation a wide range of experiences and prior knowledge. This theory lacks of note between intentional and unintentional behaviour intentional behaviour occurs when on that point is a desire for an government issue. Covariance treats explanation as a cognitive activity, no accounting for the social functions of explanations such as clarifying something for another person (Malle, B.F., 2003).TAQ 3(165 words)TAQ 4(190 words)Self-presentational behaviour is whatever behaviour intended to creat e, modify, or maintain an impression of ourselves in the minds of others. Whenever we attempt to lead people to call back of us in a particular way, we are engaging in self-presentation.Self-presentation is very important aspect of our lives. How do we make others to believe that we be in possession of various characteristic leans a huge role on our outcome in life. Self-presentation is a pervasive feature of our social life. However, self-presentational concerns also lead people to engage in behaviours that enhance their behavior but simultaneously jeopardize their own physical well-being and it even underlies self-destructive behaviour.Self-monitoring allows sympathetic to measure their behavioural outcomes against a set of standards. Small children typically do not have the ability to self-monitor, it develops overtime. The ability to both understand and assign others behavioural expectations is a developmental social milepost that will occur in middle childhood. Both self- presentation and self-monitoring shaped me to the person I am today. I was able to convince people my wife my friends and my colleagues that I am worthy of their love, their friendship, their trust and their respect.TAQ 5(156 words)There are many cistrons involved, such as proximity, similarity, and physical attractiveness in the formation of relationships. It was found out that the friendliest person were those who live near on another. Those who play together stay together, in other words those who plow similar interest in leisure activities form relationship. People of the same race, gender, age, and social background are likely to form a relationship. individual who are either similar birds of the same feather flocks together or that opposites attract forms a relationship. Physical attractiveness is also an important factor in formation of relationship, when we first meet someone their physical appearance is the first thing that will strike us before anything else. hold outs date didnt work out for her because as I have said above, her date didnt have any of the factors. He faked his photo, his description and his job so Jade and his date had nothing in common basically.TAQ 6(235 words)The main assumption of the social exchange theory (SET) is that individuals try to maximise their rewards affection and attention and reduce their costs time and effort. SET helps us understand the cost and rewards of relationships and it helps us predict how to financial backing and sustain relationships. However, it also has some weaknesses, SET neglects culture context. SET is based on a reward concept but not all cultures seek for a reward in a relationship. SET makes people seems individualistic and a reward seeking.Equity theory extends the SET, it takes into account that rewards unavoidableness to be proportionate, this is based in the assumption that people expect that a relationship to be fair. People will feel satisfied if what they put into the relationship is comparable with what they get out of it. Aspects of equity theory were unavailing to predict whether a relationship will be maintained or break down.According to Balance theory we tend to be friends or to choose friends those people who help us maintain our balance mass of the world. One simple advantage is that it recognizes that people sometimes notice contrary cognitions and that this inconsistency can lead to attitude change. It predicts how people will defend to imbalanced and balanced situations. However, one consistent problem is that the predictions dont work very well. Balance theory does not make any prediction about how imbalanced will be resolved.TAQ 7(110 words) mechanical failure is when two suitable people of goodwill and good temperament pay back apart, where communication may be poor or interactions go badly is the most common cause of relationship breakdown. Long term relationships often fail due to lack of common activities, as well as individual hobbies, interest and friends. If both partners do not grow equally one partner might feel that they are carrying the load. In Scenario 2 the youngest child is now completing his GCSE, couples shares responsibility in bringing up their children and this is their common interest. Since their younger son is becoming less of their common interest, it can become a cause of the problem.TAQ 8(219 words) heads of Dissolution(Ducks Phase Model) degree IThe Intrapsychic phaseThinking about relationship in private, parentage to consider there is a problem in the relationship.Stage IIThe Dyadic phaseThe dissatisfaction is discussed. This is when the troubled partner confronts the other and tries to correct these problems.Stage IIIThe Social phaseAt this point the decision is make by one or both partners to leave the relationship. The breakdown is do public.Stage IVThe Grave Dressing phaseA post-relationship watch over of the breakup is established both of the partners go through self-justification protect self-esteem and rebuilding life towards new relationships.In 2006 Duck and Rollie added a fifth stage, Resurrection phase, when individual evaluate the relationship and attempting to re-instigate the relationship again.One of the effectualness of this model is that it gives some insight into possible techniques that can be used so that the relationship can be repaired. It also has face inclemency as it is an account of relationship breakdown that we can relate to our own and others experiencesBrehm and Kassin (1996) sees the limitation of this study in that the women are more likely to sift unhappiness and incompatibility as reasons for breakup while men accuse lack of sex suggesting gender differences that the model does not consider.TAQ 9(93 words) dearest relationships are one of the greatest sources of happiness and meaning for every kind being. Even the strongest relationships get off track sometimes because of the stresses of daily living, and twin expectations. The HEAL (Hear-Empathize-Act-Love) technique to repair damaged relationships by replacing antitank self-protection with compassionate presence and loving connection (Greenberg, M., 2013).Hear to pick up to your partner, stay present and be there.Empathize allow your partners experience deeply affect you, share the feelings.Act address the concerns and show willingness to change.Love feel and express unconditional love.ReferencesAsch, (1946) as cited in https//books.google.co.uk/books?id=U7oeILtwkxoCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0v=onepageqf=false particular date last accessed 22 January 2015Brehm and Kassin (1996) as cited in DLcentre workbook Module 6 Social Interaction Level 3.Cowan Curtis, 1994 as cited in http//www.understandingprejudice.org/apa/ incline/page9.htmDate last accessed 26 Feb 2015Cozzarelli, Wilkinson, Tagler, 2001 as cited in http//www.understandingprejudice.org/apa/english/page9.htmDate last accessed 26 Feb 2015Eysenc, M. (2002). Simply ps ychological science. Online. 2nd Edition.East Sussex Psychology Press. Accessed 22 January 2015. addressable athttps//books.google.co.uk/books?id=U7oeILtwkxoCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0v=onepageqf=falseGreenberg, M., 2013. four-spot Steps to Relationship Repair With The H-E-A-L Technique. online.Available at https//www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201304/four-steps-relationship-repair-the-h-e-l-techniqueAccessed 12 February 2015Heider (1944) as cited in http//www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdfKelley, H. and L. Michela, J. Attribution Theory and Research. online.Available at http//www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdfAccessed 19 March 2015Kruglanski, 1977 as cited in DLCentre Ltd., 2009/11 Module 6. Social Interaction level 3Lerner, 1980 Montada Lerner, 1998 as cited in http//www.understandingprejudice.org/apa/english/page9.htmDate last acc essed 26 Feb 2015Malle, B.F., 2003. Attributions as Behavior Explanations Toward a New Theory. Online.Available at http//cogprints.org/3314/1/Explanation_theory_03.pdfAccessed 09 February 2015Michotte(1963) as cited in http//www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdfPayne, S and Walker, J. (1996). Psychology for Nurses and the Caring Profession. Philadelphia Open University Press.Rosenberg et al, (1968) as cited in https//books.google.co.uk/books?id=U7oeILtwkxoCprintsec=frontcoversource=gbs_ge_summary_rcad=0v=onepageqf=falseDate last accessed 22 January 2015Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) as cited in Payne, S and Walker, J. (1996). Psychology for Nurses and the Caring Profession.S. Nauts et al. Forming Impressions of Personality. online.Available at http//selfregulationlab.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Nauts-et-al-2014-Asch.pdfAccessed 25 February 2015Tagler, 2001 Schuller, Smith, Olson, 1994 as cited in http//www.understandingprejudice.or g/apa/english/page9.htmDate last accessed 26 Feb 2015Thibaut Riecken (1955) as cited in http//www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/attribution_theory_and_research.pdf

No comments:

Post a Comment