Friday, March 29, 2019

Status of India’s Expatriate Worker in Iraq

Status of Indias Expatriate Worker in IraqInternational drudge markets are an crucial part of the process of globalization and economic interdependency across countries and regions. This is essential to develop evidence-based policies. International migrations act as a basic device of economic building for both exporting surface area as nearly as importing orbit.They provide remittances for migrator direct countries which help its economy. On the other hand its similarly important for the development of unsettled receiving counties. India has superstar of the worlds most diverse and complex migration histories. Indian Migration to different part of the world is not new phenomenon. After Indias independence the main destination of Indian browseers was especially English mouth countries like US, UK, Canada, Australia and other developed countries. notwithstanding oil boom in the disconnectedness region in 1973 and with the beginning of development programmes in these cou ntries1. The constitution of Indian migration amount of moneyly changed. This process resulted in a massive transportation of role players from India to disconnectedness countries. During the respective period, there was concern that India was losing its educated workforce to the Hesperian countries. Migration of Indian manpower to disjunction region offers an opportunity for providing fruitful usance to Indian unemployed persons2. Before 1970, there were only 3,000 Indian merchandiser families in Dubai which was the study employment centre in the region3. On the one hand, Indias migration to gulf countries is important key factor for development of gulf countries as well as other westward Asian countries. On the other hand, by and large they earned good name for themselves and for India by their hard work, skill and competence. At the end of First World War, what is flat Iraq was a contendded to Britain as mandatory territory by League of Nations. The British decisi on maker thereupon started taking Indians to this country to build up its railway and ports, established its institutionalize and telegraph departments, its inland water transport system and various overt utilities. Some India as began to man minor posts in Iraq as clerks, technician and accountant, both public as well as private organisations. But prior to 1973 Iraq and Oman were net exporters of manpower countries. at that placeafter, both became the major labor importing countries.The formation of Indias migration to westward Asian countries changed because of square oil price further in 1973 and consequent earning of large revenue accelerated of amicable changes in Iraq as well as other West Asian countries4. Subsequently, Iraq began an wishful programme of modernisation. This was characterised by massive investment in economic and social infrastructure and necessitated the service of large number of foreign workers. Migrant workers were inevitable not only in constr uction projects. But also to work in industry, flock and service sectors. Indian companies were successful in win a number of civil construction contracts. This trend of awarding major projects to Indian companies continued through the 1980s in spite of the Iran-Iraq war. Thousands of worker arrived in Iraq for the execution of those projects. Due to the further oil price tramp steamer in 1979 government revenue rose astutely in the form of a single year. As a result, the disconnect States launched more driven development plans, lavish projects, and even more generous social benefit programs. These initiatives caused a surge in demand for an additional 700,000 migrant workers in Saudi Arabia and the other GCC countries in 1980. The number of migrant workers in Iraq also increased to about 750,000.The number of Indian workers alone exceeded 500,000 by 1980. Whereas number of Indian expatriate workers in Iraq peaked to nearly 80,000 by the ripe 1980s. Apart from the increasi ng number of workers, two other trends emerged during this period. First, the share of Arab migrant workers declined from about 43% in 1975 to about 37% in 1980. This was primarily repayable to the inflow of Indians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, and other Asian workers to the region. This was perhaps the result of the policies of the Gulf countries that favoured South Asian workers. Second, the demand for unskilled labor slowed as major infrastructure projects were completed, while the demand for skilled workers increased. After that Indians migration to Iraq as well as other gulf countries decline sapiently during 1980s due to decline in oil prices in belated 1982, contraction of oil revenues, some development projects slowed and demand for foreign workers slackened. However, the taste sensation for skilled workers continued5.The Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) and the 1991 Iraq War helped to attract migrants to this country. But gulf war 1991 and UN sanction on Iraq disturbed Indias migra tion to Iraq. After that Indian migration to Iraq sharply declined. Large amount of the migrants have come back and settled grim in their native places seeking self employment. Consequently, it was the Gulf war of 1990-91 that had woken up the Indian policy makers about the vulnerability of its workers in the Gulf, and the importance of their remittances to the economy. The increase in petroleum prices, associated with fall in remittances of Indian workers in capital of Kuwait and Iraq and the added expenditure of airlifting Indian citizens from the Gulf. Indian unskilled and semi skilled migrant move to other gulf countries i.e. Saudi Arabia, UAE etc. Provided further movement to the Indian economy to precipitate the reforms that started in early 1990s. However, with change in the paradigm of migration, it was the perception of high-skill emigration to industrial countries which had changed much more drastically than that on confinement migration to the Gulf countries6.This migr ation lightly revived with oil for viands programme. But just after couple of years this perpetually declined enormously up to end of the saddam hussain regime. The Indian Diaspora in Iraq as well as other gulf countries consists of entirely of no resident Indian citizen (NRIs). The expand of Indias migration to Iraq are provided in the following table.Table 4.8 Estimates of Indias migration to Iraq socio-economic classIndias Migration to IraqIndias Total Migration to Gulf CountriesPercentage share of Indias migration to Iraq in Indias total migration to gulf countries19757,500266,2552.82197920,000501,0003.99198125,000554,5004.51198350,000916,0005.46198735,0001,096,0003.191991261,505,0000.0021999N.A3,000,000..2001502,326,6800.002 reference 1.Deepak Nayyar, international labour migration from India A macro economic Analysis, Working story No. 3, Asian Regional programme on international labour migration, UN development Programme, New Delhi, 1988, p14.2. Report of high aim comm ittee of the India diaspora, governing body of India3. Distribution of yearbook Labor Outflows from India by Destination, 1990-1994. Asian Migration Atlas. http//smc.org.ph/ama/ama-archive.php?id=IN.Figure 4.5 Estimates of Indias migration to IraqSource Table 4.8Table 4.8 provides data about Indias migration to Iraq during ibn Talal Hussein Husseins period. Where its lay out that the size of Indias migration to Iraq constitutes 7500 in 1975. This size of migration continuously increased tremendously at peak level to 35,000 in 1987 but suddenly declined to 26 in 1991. After that Indias migration to Iraq were disturbed beyond saddam hussain period due to first gulf war, sanctions on Iraq and other political mode. This implies that prior to 1987 Iraq was healthier source for Indias labour migration. But Indias labour migration to Iraq continuously declined to 50 in 2001 due to political and economical instability in Iraq by gulf war. Looking at the percent share of Indias migration to Iraq in Indias total migration to the gulf, it is found that Percentage share of Indias migration to Iraq in Indias total migration to gulf countries constituted 2.82 percent in 1975. This share continuously increased to 3.99 percent in 1987. This corresponding year Iraq became second largest country after Saudi Arabia for Indian migrant workers in the gulf region. But Share of Indian migrants in Iraq declined sharply during gulf war 1991. broadly speaking Indian people return to home caused by feeling peril in Iraq. Thus Indian migration to Iraq declined massively during to a higher place period.Annual labor movement Migration from India to IraqThe volume of Indian migrant population in Iraq is much large than the volume of migrant workers. The data on the destination of this outflow by country of destination is given in the table 4.9. This table gives cosmopolitan Trends of labour out-flow from India to Iraq from 1982 to the 1990.Table No. 4.9 Annual labour Migration fro m India to IraqYearAnnual Labour Migration from India to IraqAnnual Labour Migration from India to west Asia% of Annual Labour Migration from India to west Asia19823526823955514.721983130012249955.781984113982059225.54198558551630353.59198650401136494.43198723301253561.86198842841698882.52198950851257864.04199016501435651.15Source Rahman, Anisur. Indian manpower to the Gulf strategic and economic dimention. In West Asia and the Region define Indias Role, by Rajendra Madhukar Abhyankar, p22. New Delhi Acadmic Foundation, 2008.Fig No. 4.5 Annual labour Migration from India to IraqSource Table No. 4.9It is clear from above data that labour migration from India to Iraq continuously grew with beginning from 35268 in 1982 to 2330 in 1987. The size of labour migration slightly improved to 4284 in 1988 and 5085. Finally this migration declined to 1650 in 1990. There after Indian labour migration almost closed in rest period of saddam hussain because of gulf war and shocking political cli mate in Iraq. Table 4.9 also found that Percentage shared yearly labour migration from India to Iraq in Indias total annual labour migration from India to West Asian countries continuously declined from 14.72 Percent in1982 to 1.15 percent in 1990 except 1986, 1988 and 1989 at 4.43 percent, 2.52 percent and 4.04 percent respectively.We can now summarise by aphorism that this chapter an attempt was made to throw light on the actual positioning and it does just describe what gone of Indias economic cooperation with Iraq through house-to-house study about trends, pattern and commodity composition of Indo-Iraq slyness during ibn Talal Hussein Era. Where, it was revealed that trend of trade relations between India and Iraq during Saddam regime grew up and down dramatically due to Iran-Iraq war and two gulf wars in 1991 and 2003. However, India and Iraq are long standing economic partners, with significant mutual trade in the pre-war period. The comprehensive study of this chapter to found that compound annual yield of Indo-Iraq trade, Indias total trade and Iraqi total trade has been found as 14.56 % percent, 8.05 % percent and -4.62 percent, respectively over the period. This implies that Indo-Iraq trade was the worse in performance as compared to Indias total trade and Iraq total trade during Saddam Hussains Period. Thus it can be concluded that Indo-Iraq trade suffered serious setback. Indo-Iraq trade reduced more speedily than Iraqs total trade. Whereas, Indias total trade increased tremendously during saddam era. The abridgment further found that Indias trade with Iraq has been tremendously unbalanced due to Over Representation of Indias imports from Iraq. It is also found that, Indias migration to Iraq was significant before gulf war 1991. After that Indian migration to Iraq sharply declined up to the end of saddam regime.1 . Rahman, Anisur. Indian Labour Migration to the Gulf. New Delhi Rajat Publication, 2001.2 . Rahman, Anisur. Indian manpower to th e Gulf strategic and economic dimention. In West Asia and the Region Defining Indias Role, by Rajendra Madhukar Abhyankar, p203. New Delhi Acadmic Foundation, 2008.3 . Rahman, Anisur. Indian manpower to the Gulf strategic and economic dimention. In West Asia and the Region Defining Indias Role, by Rajendra Madhukar Abhyankar, p16. New Delhi Acadmic Foundation, 2008.4 . Prakash, B.A. Indian migration to west asia. In The Indian Economy Since 1991 Economic Reforms and Performance, by B.A Prakash, p85. Delhi Dorling Kindersley, 2009.5 . Contries ofthe gulf region. Report of high level committee of the India diaspora, Government of India, 2002.6 . Khadria, Binod. India Skilled Migration To unquestionable Countries, Labour Migration To TheGulf. (D. Reidel Publishing) March 2006 p156. Or https//www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bop/2003/03-20.pdf (accessed haughty 2013, 20).

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