Monday, February 25, 2019

Nationalism Essay †Nationalism Forms & Theories â€

see patriotism Nationalism Forms and Theories our aim1. IntroductionWhat is Nationalism and how do you find NationalismThis evidence volition discuss renderings and fleshs of subjectism in an attempt to specify state of matteralism phenomenon. The first section give digest on sticking contemporary and historical definitions. Secondly, a brief account of the emergence of patriotism and debates everyplace its origins bequeath be presented. The subsequent section will detail applicatory and theoretical mannequins of patriotism and fence for the fact that distinct definitions derive from disparate theories and kinds of patriotism.Define NationalismTo provide a deeper epitome, forms of patriotism and their definitions will be connected with theories of patriotism. Based on these sections, this essay will argue that out-of-pocket to mingled ramifications of the image of patriotism, this conception exists in various forms accompanied by a variety of defin itions, each serving kindred and distinct purposes. Fin eithery, last(a) remarks will be drawn establish on the evidence presented throughout this essay.2. Define NationalismTo initiate an analysis of definitions and forms of patriotism, this essay will focus on four chief(prenominal) definitions (Smith, 2016 Anderson, 2006, Gellner, 1969 and Khon, 1965).When referring to nation and nationality Smith (2013 7) defines nationalism based on three generic goals which retain emerged from the academic study of this ideology, namely national unity, national autonomy and national identity. In this framework, nationalism is defined as an ideologic movement for attaining and maintaining autonomy of unity and identity for a world which some of its members deem to constitute an actual or potential nation. However, for Anderson (2006 211), nations be merely imagined communities as members of these communities will r arly know each varied, and gum olibanum they will draw upon the co ncept of nationality from their own imagined population to which they endure to.This idea emerged from earlier concepts elaborated by Gellner (1969) who argued that nationalism is nonhing more than the process of imagining nations. A similar definition that focuses on the idea that nationalism is internally felt by the soulfulness was developed by Khon (1965 9) public debate that Nationalism is a state of mind, in which the supreme loyalty of the undivided is felt to be imputable to the nation-state.Similar to Smith (2013), Coakley (2012) argues that many of the accredited definitions on nationalism overlap with each other and besides with definitions of other capriciousnesss, much(prenominal) as the concept of state. The state has been defined as a compulsory semi semipolitical organisation operating on a unremitting basis (Weber, 1968) while a nation has been defied as a piece population sharing a common territory and heartyization (Smith, 1991). all(prenominal) of these terms basin be encountered in definitions of nationalism which, according to Coakley (2012) memorise this concept as a form of political mobilisation or an ideology that justifies this mobilisation and diminishes the barriers between nation and state.As it put forward be discovered from the above, in some areas these explanations converge while in other areas these legal opinions search to be divergent. Smith (2013) looks at nationalism as being a concept that describes self-governing capacity while Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) see this notion as the process of imagining communities. Similar to Smith (2013), Khon (1965) sees nationalism as connected with the notion of state.It passel therefore be argued that nationalism is understood differently by these theoreticians. Finally, it can be ascertained that notions of self-determination and nationalism seen as an imagined form of identity expression befuddle been maintained from the 19th cytosine (Khon, 1965 Gell ner, 1969) to the twenty-first (Smith, 2013). thus, the following sections will attempt to uncover the reasons behind these differences.Define Nationalism To spay or sum up this essay or to vex pricing on a custom essay Contact Us Today3. Nationalism Forms and TheoriesTo conk out understand why a integrated definition of nationalism is not established, it is important to look at the epicentre from which nationalism a essays. Consequently, a historical analysis of the concept and its subsequent forms, corroborated by theories of nationalism, will be seek in social club to understand this notion. The following section will then discuss these themes.3.1. The Emergence of NationalismAlthough the word nationalism besides emerged in political language after 1840, its importance grew significantly in the 19th century with revolutions across Europe (Hirschi, 2011). In this stop consonant, the most significant event involving nationalism occurred in 1914, when a fear of Slav nationalism led to the blackwash of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the First World War (Breuilly, 2013).After the war, the Versailles Treaty make reference to notions of nation states, which became the primary concept used by US President Woodrow Wilson when instituting the doctrine of national self-determination (Breuilly, 2013). This action after gave bone to substantial claims of nationalism around the world (Hirschi, 2011).Dahbour (2003) contradicts this, list that national self-determination was a response to the colonisation of states which eventually demanded national liberation. Furthermore, self-determination not only gives rise to nationalism scarcely besides to ethical and healthy citizenship and with it, the ability of a nation to self-govern. As a result, Dahbour (2003) argues that nationalism is a specific claim made for self-determination.Both ideas elaborated by Dahbour (2003) and Breuilly, (2013) are noticeable in the definitions provided by Sm ith (2013) and Khon (1965). It can therefore be argued that the notion of self-governance and self-determination are connected with the emergence of nationalism and later on to its definition.Another opposing view comes from Andersen (2006) who emphasises language, specifically the shared language of a nation. fit to this author, nationalism could not have spread and matured without commonwealth being able to read about this notion and debate this notion in writing (Andersen 2006). As a result, a heathen chemical element language- aided in the spread and maturation of nationalism (Andersen, 2006). Nevertheless, this argument does not concern itself with the emergence of nationalism precisely rather examines its consolidation. However, it emphasises the importance of culture in the definition of nationalism which spirals from a collective mind. This can thus support ideas of Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) of imagined communities as shared language is an acquired cognitive function and thus it is a part of the collective mind.Define Nationalism To modify or extend this essay or to get full references Contact Us Today3.2. Forms of NationalismNationalism can be manifested as a state ideology or as a non-state popular movement. These manifestations give rise to five forms of nationalism ( heathenish, phantasmal, polite, cultural or ideological) which are used to classify sub-types of nationalism (Chatturvedi, 2005). There are over 10 sub-types of nationalism (Snyder, 2009), some of which seek unity and self-governance for hoi polloi of certain ethic groups while others seek expansion and economic harvest-home for nations against the global community (Chatturvedi, 2005). Other forms of nationalism have been criticised for hiding racism (i.e. al-right nationalism favouring white supremacy) (Snyder, 2009) while other forms of nationalism seek to become social unity and equality regardless of heathenishality (i.e. left-wing nationalism) (Maxwell an d Maxwell, 2014).Ethnic NationalismFor ethnic nationalism and derivate sub-types, nationalism functions on the principle that a nation can only be defined by its ethnic connection which encompasses shared language, culture, inheritance and ancestry. Because of this characteristic, Roshwald (2001) describes this form of nationalism as intolerant and descriptive of authoritarian regimes. Studies (Gil-White, 2006 Sulaiman, 2016) flavor into this concept have reason that similar to nationalism in general, ethnic nationalism is composed of a series of terms that have characteristic definitions, including ethnicity, nation and state. When looking at manifestations of ethic nationalism in the world, query (Sulaiman, 2016) seems to describe similar lines with theory (Roshwald, 2001). This demonstrates thatethnic nationalism leads to conflict, especially in ethnic diverse locations (i.e. Niger Delta) (Sulaiman, 2016).Religious NationalismReligious nationalism denotes a form of national ism which relies upon a interchange religion or dogma that has implications in politics and state personal business (Omer and Springs, 2013). This notion contrasts strongly with modern forms of nationalism and has been described as an reasonless form of nationalism (Omer and Springs, 2013 80). Several real world type mickleters cases include non-secular states, much(prenominal) as Iran, Saudi Arabia or Afghanistan, where the sacred law (Sharia Law or the Islamic Law) is the ultimate law of the state (Kavalski, 2016). As ethnic nationalism, religious nationalism shows little to no tolerance for other religious beliefs (Kavalski, 2016), stock-still it does not focus on ethnic unity, merely rather on religious unity by repelling any opposing views.Civic NationalismAt the other end of the spectrum, civic nationalism ( in addition referred to as progressive nationalism) advocates for social unity, single(a) rights and freedoms. This form of nationalism is centred on the idea of a non-xenophobic society, which shows tolerance for all its individuals and strives to provide equality and social justice (Hall, 1998). A practical example of this can be found in Singapore, where the governments scheme for development derived directly form civic nationalism and globalisation (Brown, 2000).empirical evidence (Kwan, 2016 Modongal, 2016) shows that while civic nationalism is the driving force of globalisation, it excessively leads to a dilution of intrinsic values in highly traditional societies (i.e. China). However, civic nationalism, as nationalism, has different forms of interpretation. Focusing on a definition provided by Habermas (1996), Shen (2007 17) argues that civic nationalism is a voluntary selection of allegiance based on values. If contrasting the dickens definitions, it can be observed that civic nationalism is defined from a societal-national perspective (Hall, 1998) but as well as from a global, international perspective (Shen, 2007). Here, nati ons would accept cooperation with other nations to whom they share similar values. In practice, this rarely occurs (i.e. China and US economic trade), and countries with distinctive cultures will end up in cooperation for economic development hence the potential for culture dilution (Modongal, 2016).Thus, civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism have a converging point, namely the element of shared culture. The cultural form of nationalism thus defines a middle ground between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism (Fedorenko, 2012 Song, 2009). Hutchinson (1987) argues with historical examples from Arab, Jewish and Hindu nations that cultural nationalism plays a significant part in the building of nations, as it is a shared belief, value and tradition alongside with ethnic heritage which can lead to the consolidation of states.Ideological NationalismFinally, ideological nationalism is a form of political nationalism which argues for the capacity of nations to self-govern (Smith, 20 13). This notion can also be seen Dahbours (2003) idea of self-determination as well as in the definition of nationalism provided by Smith (2013). Looking at the history of nationalism two main conclusions can be drawn. The first refers to the fact that nationalism is highly connected with the concept of national identity and claims made for self-governance. Thus it may be argued that early forms of nationalism were ideological in nature and focused on notions of territory, population and self-government. This seems to justify Coakleys (2012) ideas, according to which definitions of nationalism overlap definitions of state, nations and ethnicity. Secondly, because nationalism comes in various forms and subsequent types, a unified definition of nationalism is most likely unachievable. As a result, different forms of nationalism will automatically lead to the conclusion that each form defines a different concept, which although similar in some respects, will also be very distinctive in others.Because the progression of nationalism gave rise to different definitions and forms of nationalism, to better understand their nature, theories on nationalism need to be approached in a structured way (REFERENCE). The next section will therefore look at different theories of nationalism and attempt to set different forms and definitions of nationalism within these theoretical boundaries.3.3. Four Theories of NationalismAccording to Llobera (1999) four main theories dominate the notion of nationalism. These are primaeval and socio- biologic theories, instrumentalist theories, modernisation theories and evolutionary theories. Primordialists such as Herder and Fichte and more recently Smith and Connor, see nationalism as something which was always present in people but had been reawakened under political self-consciousness (Brown, 2003). Geertz (1973) argues for the concept of given identity, as an individual who is born within a group will receive its identity.Consequentl y, ethnic boundaries are established which are represented by the individuals shared experience with family members and the group (Tishkov, 1997). Socio-biologists claims derived from this theory argue that heritage and implicitly ethnicity is passed on genetically (Llobera, 1999). These theories frame the notions of ethnic nationalism and cultural nationalism. Ozkirimli (2017) argues that these two forms of nationalism have their roots in primordial theory.Hutchinson and Smith (1994) have analysed primordialism in depth and argue that human social interaction will take place based on three elements kin selection, reciprocality and coercion. From this notion, the authors hypothesise that ethnic groups are in fact super-families. Therefore, members of these super-families will be biologically inclined towards cooperation and reciprocity with their own kin while also resorting to some forms of coercion (Hutchinson and Smith, 1994). Conclusively, it can be argued that notions of belon ging and indirectly excluding others, encountered in definitions of nationalism derive from these theories.Instrumentalist theories diverge from primordial theories by arguing that ethnic groups can be seen as nations and their boundaries are not fixed, but in fact these can vary according to specific ineluctably (i.e. economic development) (Llobera, 1999). A representative figure in this domain is Barth (1969) who support this theory by arguing that ethnicity is not a reference to biological or cultural heritage but more a form of social organisation. In Barths (1969) assertion, boundaries serve a specific purpose, either biological, ecological, economic, political and/or historical. Transposed, this idea can be encountered in the notion of religious nationalism (Sandler, 2004) where Islamic cultures maintain boundaries for political interest but individuals become a part of their nation when converting to Islam.Modernisation theories strongly equate primordialism by arguing tha t nationalism emerged as the result of modern processes, such as industrialisation, favourable political, cultural and socio-economic conditions (Llobera, 1999). Hence, theoreticians who support this claim such as Kohn, Kedourie and Gellne, see nationalism as a modern invention (Hall, 1998). According to Hall (1998) this idea can be seen in notions of civic nationalism and ideological nationalism. Although these three theories show substantial contrasts, the fourth theory of nationalism, namely the Evolutionary theory attempts to bring together the notion of modern and primordial (to some extent).As a result, evolutionary theories argue that indeed, nationalism is a product of modern times however in Europe, this concept evolved from the ideas of Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) of imagined communities corroborated by a form of patriotic nationalism which was present since the medieval period (Llobera, 1999). However, as Smith (1981) observed, in order to pinpoint the emergence o f nationalism, an analysis of the transference from medieval to modern needs to be conducted. In order to accomplish this, all societal elements must be considered, including economic, social, political and ideological (Smith, 1981).By assessing the aforementioned theories of nationalism, several elements can be noted. Firstly, the evolutionary theories focus on the emergence of nationalism in Europe, which thus implies that this theory cannot be applied for explaining how nationalism emerged elsewhere (i.e. Hutchinson (1987) on the emergence of nationalism in Hindu nations).However, evolutionary theories can be used to explain the shaping of definitions that rely on state and nation. Secondly, primordial, instrumentalist and modern theories of nationalism can be used as frameworks to explain the differences between forms of nationalism and subsequently between definitions of this phenomenon. Another observation that can be made in this case is that nationalism cannot be understood as functioning from a pure ideological, ethnic, dogmatic or religious form.Define Nationalism To modify or extend this essay, let us know and we will write your essay Contact Us TodayAs it was discussed, its emergence and consolidation was favoured by specific politic, economic, social and cultural circumstances, while at the same time its development was favoured by the same notions (Smith, 1981). An exemplification of this can be seen in civic nationalism which serves the purpose of developing social inclusion and globalisation (Brown, 2000) while religious nationalism can be seen as a political instrument(Omer and Springs, 2013). Considering the octuple ramifications of this phenomenon, the existence of various forms and definitions of nationalism becomes explainable.4. ConclusionThis essay discussed various definitions and forms of nationalism and argued that a unified definition of nationalism is not likely achievable due to the existence of various forms of this notion. I n the first section of this essay, by focalization on four definitions of nationalism issued by Smith (2013), Anderson (2006), Gellner (1969) and Khon (1965) it was observed that these theoreticians have different perceptions over the notion of nationalism.As a result, the emergence of nationalism and its forms was assessed in an attempt to explain these differences. By analysing the emergence of nationalism and its various forms it was noted that each form of nationalism derived its own definition. Furthermore, it was observed that definitions of nationalism are connected with its emergence.Hence the existence of various forms of nationalism cannot be used alone to explain its distinctive definition. To do so, understanding where and how this phenomenon emerged is also important. To provide a structured framework for the various forms and definitions of nationalism, theories of this concept were unite with the identified forms of nationalism and linked with the studied definitions of nationalism.Here, it was observed that definitions of the broad concepts of nationalism fit within the elaborated theories while forms of nationalism also drop cloth within this framework. By assessing current notions of nationalism it can be concluded that the exact emergence of nationalism cannot be pin-pointed however primordial theories (Geertz, 1973) argue that this concept may have innate characteristics, thus it was always present in humans.Secondly, by observing the various forms of nationalism it can be concluded that this concept may have begun as a fair ideology from medieval times however it evolved to serve various purposes resulting in the variety of definitions and forms. Thus, a single definition of nationalism is unlikely to be developed (Hall, 1998).Define Nationalism To modify or extend this or get full references Contact Us TodayNeed help with Best AP Books Selection fritter a look at http//www.StudyAPExam.comSummaryArticle Name Define Nationalism Essay our site 3000 Words Description From the definition of nationalism to emergence of nationalism, practical & theoretical forms & conclusion, everything is covered in this 3500 word Nationalism Essay. 1000s of happy students Author Silvia our site Publisher Name our site Publisher Logo

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