Tuesday, January 21, 2020

C++ Programming :: science

C++ Programming NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 OVERVIEW 4 BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 5 GROUP ASSIGNMENT 6 INITIALIZATION 8 CONSTANTS 9 INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS 10 ELSE-IF 13 SWITCH 14 LOOPS 15 EXAMPLES OF LOOPS 16 BREAK, CONTINUE 18 RETURN 19 FUNCTION DEFINITION: 21 VOID FUNCTIONS 22 FUNCTIONS RETURNING A VALUE 23 OVERVIEW Algorithms: A step-by-step sequence of instructions that describes how to perform a computation. Answers the question "What method will you use to solve this computational problem?" Flowcharts: Provides a pictorial representation of the algorithm using the symbols. Structure Charts: Provides a pictorial representation of the modules contained in the program. Programming Style: Standard form: Function names starts in column 1 and is placed with the required parentheses on a line by itself. The opening brace of the function body follows on the next line and is placed under the first letter of the function name. The closing brace is placed by itself in column 1 as the last line of the function. The final form of your programs should be consistent and should always serve as an aid to the reading and understanding of your programs. Comments: Explanatory remarks made within a program. Help clarify what the complete program is about, what a specific group of statements is meant to accomplish, or what one line is intended to do. Top-Down Program Development: 1. Determine the desired output items that the program must produce. 2. Determine the input items 3. Design the program as follows: a. Select an algorithm for transforming the input items into the desired outputs. b. Check the chosen algorithm, by hand, using specific input values. 4. Code the algorithm into C. 5. Test the program using selected test data. BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT Space set aside for the variable: Characters 1 byte (8 bits) Pointers 4 bytes Integers 2 bytes (16 bits) or 4 bytes (32 bits) Short int or short 2 bytes Unsigned int or unsigned 2 bytes Long Integers 4 bytes Floats 4 bytes(single precision, about 7 decimal places) Doubles 8 bytes(double precision, about 15 decimal places) Type Space a) double *values; __________________ ________________________ b) long x[1000]; __________________ ________________________ c) char *s = "string"; __________________ ________________________ d) char s[] = "string"; __________________ ________________________ e) char *name [10]; __________________ ________________________

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