Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Homosexuality from the Psychological and Christian Perspectives Essay

The rightness or wrongness of oddity has long been a subject for debate in both moral and social circles. whatsoever puzzle verbalise that a soulfulnesss gender is their give choice and therefore should be respected. Some contend that queerness is brought on by factors both biologic and environmental and should therefore be understood. staunch Christian believers on the other hand point out that when divinity created humans, He created only man and woman. Anything that goes against that is simply wrong and immoral.In the nineteenth century, homo innerity was defined as one somebodys want and interest for a nonher person of the homogeneous sex (Homosexuality, 2004). Today, while the rendering is still applicable, queerness has also come to be viewed as abstracted to be of the other gender different from ones testify biology. I lowlifet help who I am. Is a persons homosexuality brought about as a matter of choice, by birth, or is it something in a persons environment? at that place save been theories advanced in the field of psychology that state mickle are influenced by factors both external and internal.The late nineteenth and betimes 20th centuries saw the foremost scientific studies into the air of homosexuality (Vern & axerophthol Vern, 1993). The first was Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895). He was one of the first acknowledged researchers into homosexuality as well as one of the first people to publicly agree he was gay. In those days, he c all(prenominal)ed what we know now as homosexuality urning and stated that urnings should be considered simply as the third sex. Richard von Krafft-Ebbing (1840-1902) was one of the first to issue views on homosexuality as a perversion.Then again, all sexual acts undertaken without the purpose of reproduction, to him, were unnatural and perversions of the sexual instinct. (Vern & Vern, 1993) Several studies and then(prenominal) showed that homosexuality, particularly among males, was a comm on if non natural occurrence. In the journal Yearbook for the Sexual Intermediates, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, a leading proponent of the thought that homosexuality was in natural and therefore natural, states In the embryonic state, people are bisexual, yet in the course of their natural development, most lose their desire for members of the same sex.These people are the heterosexuals, who recognise members of the opposite sex. Another category consists of those individuals whose sexual organs develop normally but in whom the desire for same-sex individuals in the feeling center fails to recede. The results are men who love men and women who love women. (Sappho and Socrates, 1896) (Russell, 1995) The field of psychoanalysis also presented their views on the origin of homosexuality. In the early(a) days, homosexuality, as well as other deviant societal appearances were viewed as illnesses that were treatable by psychoanalysis.One explanation advanced was that of Freuds Oedipus Com plex among males and extremity envy among the female homosexuals. Freud says that males with Oedipus complex, preferred their mother and hated their father. Perhaps this can be translated to males hating their maleness because they associate it with their fathers. Women on the other hand, realize a repressed desire for a penis in their psychosexual priapic and oral stages said Freud. (Webster, 2005, p. 324) Feminist critics of Freudian theory however said that Freuds thinking were too misogynist and distinctly anti-feminine.One arctic development in psychiatric understanding of homosexuality was a reckon conducted by Irving Bieber (Dain et al. , 1962, p. 182). In a sample of 106 homosexual patients treated by either him or other psychiatrists, he found that feminine and cross-gender behavior patterns commonly manifested themselves even before the age of puberty. It is from this study that it was determined that homosexuality posture in even before males were influenced by any ho rmonal surges and sexual awareness caused by puberty.These results however, have been interpreted and over-simplified by some quarters to mean that homosexuality must then be attributed to a male individuals relationship with a strong, dominant mother and a weak or absent father. It was then proposed that homosexuality was not an illness, but rather a developmental problem brought about by conditions of family relations particularly the relationship between father and son. Homosexuality was then treated as the product of a fathers trouble to bond and impress the male gender identity on his son. bewilder needs to mirror and affirm the sons maleness. As Payne explains, The masculinity within is called forth and blessed by the masculinity without ( 1985 13 ). This bonny and mysterious match is the union of an inner need and an outer reality. The boy seeks to take in what is exciting, fun, and energizing about his father. There is a freedom and power to outgrowing motherand this po wer is personified by the father. If father is warm and receptive, the boy will be set aheadd to dis-identify from the feminine and enter into the masculine sphere.He will then become masculine-identified and most probably heterosexual. If both parents encourage the boy this focussing, he will be well on his way to fulfilling his male gender identification and heterosexuality. (Baird & Baird, 1995, p. 52) The year 1973 saw a change in the way homosexuality was viewed (Vern & Vern, 1993). Due to a vote held within the American Psychological Association (APA), homosexuality ceased to be an illness and was subsequently dropped from the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. The debate on the origin of homosexuality is basically of a nature vs. urture perspective.Some have posited the inclination that being gay is not a choice, one is just born gay. Others have contended that homosexuality comes from failed or uneven relationships within the family. Which truly is which? Thinke rs called essentialists channel forth the belief that mans make up is biological and genetic. Sexual orientation is just one of the things that genes, hormones and brain make up decide. People are born gay and thus, cannot change or race from that. (LeVay, 1996). (Seutter & Rovers, 2004) At the opposite end of the argument are the constructionists. For them, zilch is born gay.Sexual orientation is decided and influenced by an individuals interaction and reinforced choices in the social context particularly in the family setting. (Seutter & Rovers, 2004) Family seems to play a key role in the endeavor of an individuals gender. Be it taken from a genetic part to setting the environment that conditions and orients an individual with society. Many psychologists agree that a persons relationship with people around ones ego will have influences of varying degrees on the individuals choices and preferences.In fact several theories have been advanced with their basis on such fa milial contributions. (Seutter & Rovers, 2004) Bowens Family-of-origin theory (1978) states that a persons self-image, behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values are formed by experiences within ones family-of-origin. Differentiation or the need to preserve ones self in relationships as an individual as well as the take aim of intimacy reached is just one of the things that are developed in the family-of-origin. license and power were the basis for Williamsons concept of Personal Authority (1991) In his concept, Williamson believed that an individuals person and feeling of personal was formed by leaving the parental home in the psychological if not sensible sense. He further stated that only when an individual has individuated himself or set himself apart from the family and established his own identity can he reconnect voluntarily with his family. (Seutter & Rovers, 2004)Nowadays, gays and lesbians have become more empowered as argue to the years past when homosexuals live d in fear of being discovered and degage from society or prohibited from living normally as they chose. In a journal article by Anthony R. DAugelli (2003) for the American ledger of Community Psychology, he shares Homosexuality was not removed from the psychiatric spoken language in DSM until 1973, a year after I completed my doctoral training.During my clinical training, I wanted to discuss my feelings with someone, but the idea was rattling(a) and, I did not seek professional help because of fear that I would be removed from my program. (After all, who trains someone with a mental disorder to be a clinical psychologist? ) In addition, despite my sexual orientation, which was fairly cause to me at that point, I could not even bring myself to share this education even with the Army physicians during my physical examination after being drafted for function during the Vietnam era.This simple truth would have removed me from induction, but I could not say the words. (DAugelli, 2 003) What the Church has to Say The growing numbers of out gays and lesbians have not escaped the notice of the Christian churches. Traditionally, churches of different religions have been inimical toward gays and lesbians. To them, there are only two genders man and woman. There have even been some instances where there were accounts of physical and verbal humiliation and iniquity gay worshippers suffered within the church, at time in the hands of a priest of Father confessor.

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