Wednesday, January 30, 2019

History of Management Thought †Elton Mayo Essay

This essay covers the life and key contri scarcelyions of Elton mayo, a famed figure in circumspection light, and how his theories have make a solid impact in circumspection today.BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE ELTON MAYOGeorge Elton mayo was natural in Adelaide, Australia on 26th December 1880. Under heavy family influence, mayonnaise embarked on a course in medicine. However, he failed an examination which stop his chances of having a medical calling. He went on to subject area philosophy and psychological science at The University of Adelaide and graduated in 1911. Following his graduation, he lectured at The University of Queensland from 1911 to 1923. In 1912, mayonnaise married Dorothea McConnel, a daughter of a respectable Australian family. They had two daughters, Patricia and Gael (Witzel 2005).During World War I, mayonnaise treated shell-shocked soldiers, families and acquaintances by dint of which he gained invaluable insights. This became the foundation of his climax to the analysis of problems in modern industries (Smith 1974).In 1923, mayonnaise became a researcher at the University of Pennsylvanias Wharton enlighten of Commerce and Finance where he examined the physical and psychological factors which catchd lavishly employee perturbation at the Continental Mills (Merrill 1960).Mayo was also significantly mingled in the research relating to The Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company from 1924 to 1932. This study formed the basis of Mayos views on industrial settings as a tender system (Pugh & vitamin A Hickson 2007). Mayo died in Guildford, Surrey on 1st September 1949.MAYOS KEY WORKS AND THEORIESMayos bats and theories have made significant contributions to the evolution of management in organic laws.One of Mayos key theories was derived from the research undertaken at the Continental Mills. He concluded that the central problem underlying the high turnover rate of employees in the spinning department was due to discouraged reveries. According to Mayo, the term pessimistic reveries, is the state of point in which contradict thoughts and distractions dominate the minds of individuals, interfering with their trim performance (Mayo 1947). It is caused by exhaustion and humdrum in blend routines. This led to Mayos theory of implementing backup periods to ease employees fatigue which would dismiss these pessimistic reveries (Mayo 1924).Another key designate Mayo brought up from his studies at the Hawthorne plant was the significance of work groups in creating employees contentment (Smith 1974). According to Mayo, there is a tendency for groups to establish their proclaim culture and build on their own ideologies, thereby influencing the way individuals transmit at work (Tillett, Kempner & angstrom Wills 1970). An intimate purlieu created from these informal work groups provides a understanding of belonging inside individuals. This resulting recognition leads to higher productivity at heart organ izations (Roethlisberger 1949).Mayo also emphasized on the need to work towards effective human collaborationism to re-establish the diminishing brotherly function within industries. Based on Emile Durkheims theory of anomie, he sees the term as the cause of social disorganization in confederacy, raising a sense of inferiority and disenchantment within individuals (Wren & adenosine monophosphate Bedeian 2009). To resolve this predicament, Mayo introduced the concept of managerial elites, who were trained to manage not only the technical aspects, but also the social aspects of industrial organizations (Smith 1998).Mayos key publications include, The mankind Problems of an industrial Civilization (1933), The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (1945) and The Political Problems of an Industrial Civilization (1947). These books detailed the rationale for contemporary human relations figurehead and served as influential publications in the history of management theory (Wo od & Wood 2004).FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCED MAYO AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIS THEORIES The by- cable television service factors will provide insights on how Mayo was influenced in the creation of his key works and theories.Political FactorsDuring the beginning(a) World War (1914 1918), Mayo gained invaluable experiences which assisted him to develop a basis towards his views on the complications in industrial society. These experiences arose from his psychotherapeutic treatment on the shell shocked soldiers, resulting in his assertion that rest periods given to the soldiers would significantly improve their mental state of health and performance. Drawing on this conclusion, Mayo believed that the introduction of rest periods to industrial employees could lead to higher productivity (Mahoney & Baker 2002).Furthermore, his experience in WWI paved the way to his illustrious career as a practitioner with patients for thirty years (Mayo 1947). In 1919, the coat in conflicts and fall of civilization was apparent in Australia. Government interference was thought to be the cure to this predicament. However, Mayo disagreed with this belief and felt that political interference would only shape up aggravate class conflicts, and ultimately cause the fall of society. He claimed that the best way to restore the diminishing social code was through effective collaboration (Bendix & Fisher 1949). economic FactorThe economic depression in 1929 resulted in shortened working hours at the Hawthorne plant, as well as the termination of the relay conclave test room studies. Faced with a rapidly ever-changing society, Mayo placed greater strain on the need for effective collaboration and the recovery of social solidarity. This intensify in perspective received greater support from the public, thereby giving Mayo further recognition for his ideologies (Wren & Bedeian 2009).Social FactorThe Industrial Revolution brought about a change to the management of actor relatio ns in organizations. Managers placed greater emphasis on productivity of employees and failed to recognize their social needs. This caused a disruption to the social organization within industries (Kennedy 1998). Mayo did not oppose to this change, he evidently proposed the need for individuals to adapt accordingly. This could be accomplished through studying the industrial society first hand and attaining social skills so as to call down effective collaboration in organizations (Robinson 1946).Intellectual FactorsMayo was primarily influenced in his approach to psychology by the French psychologist, Pierre Marie Flix Janet. He was intrigued by Janets works on Hysteria and Obsession and this engross led him to practice psychotherapeutic treatment on soldiers returning from the stolon World War (Mayo 1947).Frederick Winslow Taylor, astray regarded as the father of management science, had a very different approach towards scientific management as compared to Mayo. He had workers going through a series of incessant tasks and actions. This monotonous and demanding approach left workers with very little control, and contributed to extremely high rates of worker turnover within organizations (Mahoney & Baker 2002). Mayo believed that the Taylorist Bossism method of management would not be as productive as compared to his therapeutic methods (Hoopes 2003). Fritz Roethlisberger was inform with Mayo at the Harvard University and was introduced to Mayos ideas and theories. He went on to frame a book based on Mayos beliefs and efforts entitled, management and the Worker. Roethlisberger was a popular speaker and managed to carry on Mayos legacy as a spokesperson to the human relations endeavour (Mahoney & Baker 2002).RELEVANCE OF MAYOS THEORIES TO MANAGERS TODAYMayos theories still remain relevant to managers today in antagonism of the ever changing nature of todays organizational environment. The following is a coverion of this relevance. Mayos theory of implementing rest periods, to payoff fatigue and exhaustion contributing to pessimistic reveries, is illustrated in the leading cyberspace search engine company, Google. The headquarters of Google, The Googleplex, provides many recreational facilities such as volleyball courts, pool tables and gymnasiums to help employees unwind. This interrupts any form of pessimistic reveries that could be experienced by their employees. With a more positive state of mind while working, the level of productivity within the company ultimately increases. The winner of Google has clearly shown that Mayos theory, based on the need to bear off pessimistic reveries, is still relevant in todays society (Google 2010).In addition, the relevance of Mayos key theory on the importance of work groups can be showcased in the global infrastructure, finance and media company, General Electric (GE). GE developed the Work-Out process which involves bringing staff together to identify areas in need of improvem ents. Within small groups, employees and managers discuss the issues and develop recommendations. This process helps create a vibrant working environment and has a positive influence on the way GE employees deliberate and behave (Beam 2002). Based on the 1995 GE Annual Report, the annual dividends significantly increased to $1.4billion due to the incorporation of the Work-Out process (General Electric 1996). This example further highlights the relevance of Mayos theory in modern management.Finally, Mayo also believed that effective collaboration was an essential tool for building a functioning social system in a rapidly changing industry. cisco Systems, an industry leader in networking solutions and information technology, is one such company that sees effective collaboration as a high priority business tool for attaining success. This is supported by a study, sponsored by cisco Systems, highlighting the successful strategies to effective collaboration (Astle 2009). This view is in line with Mayos theory that a socially handicapped organization would bring about negative attitudes amongst workers and hence, restrict the maximum productivity that could be attained otherwise. The call for effective collaboration is apparent in Cisco Systems, thus, showing how Mayos theory is still widely technical in contemporary management.CONCLUSIONMayos theories and views have made a significant impact in the study of management history. In an ever changing organizational setting, which inevitably disrupts the social code within industries, Mayo stressed the need to restore effective collaboration amongst the employees through managerial elites. He also emphasized on the importance of work groups within organizations. Mayos influence on management science was a vital part of his legacy and his theories are still widely practiced today as they were in the beginning.

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