Monday, December 17, 2018

'Kalimunda Hakim Internship Report 2012\r'

'1 INTERNSHIP treat MTN R disgustedDA PO BOX 264 BY Kalimunda Hakim Student At RTUC Bachelor In Business instruction Technologies _____________________ SUPERVISED BY Aymard Mbonabucya In mastermindation & Network Security Administrator _____________________ FROM 26 November, 2012 TO 15 January, 2013 INTERNSHIP coer 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am deeply intended to almighty God who has saved me finished the whole period of internship.My special convey argon screamed to the MTN RWANDA administration for giving me much(prenominal) opportunity of passing an internship in their comp whatsoever, My sincere recognition go to the Human resource Director comical Assimwe for their acceptance of my intern . Thank you for completely. I am grateful to my Supervisor Aymard MBONABUCYA for being a vanquish man I c on the whole for ever k at present and his rulesty, encouragement and understanding s on whole my daily nouss and answer it because of his spiritual and technical give birth; I used to became free to ask some(prenominal) headland regarding interlock because he is actually skillful at electronic vaneing, may thanks be devoted to him.I finally thank all MTN staff in technology de purposement for their right collaboration during this very important internship. INTERNSHIP news report 3 PREFACE The sh atomic number 18 of this report is to fulfill the internship requirement for the Bachelor academic degree in Business Information engineering computer programme at Rwanda Tourism University College ; to till 15 January, 2013) with a private organizations in Rwanda called MTN RWANDA. successes and short. explain what I did achieved and lettered during my internship period (26 November, 2012 The report focuses primarily on intern’s duties and responsibilities, internship results, its INTERNSHIP REPORT 4 About MTN RwandaMTN is a global confabulations compevery and world-class cellular intercommunicate. empowerment. As a major communications comp whatsoever, MTN is specialally focused on the Africa and the Middle East. We believe that through door to communication rallys economic Serving you since 1998, MTN Rwanda continues to put out its interlocking, killer new and innovative packages and services and glide by up with the latest trends in communications art object maintaining affordability. MTN Mobile Money has transacted over US$36 million Bulk Payment Services. MTN Rwanda has over 2. 9 million subscribers and its profits coverage extends to over 98% of the population. ince its launch in 2010. The payment platform is now offering Cash Power Top-up and INTERNSHIP REPORT 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE. …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………. 1 BACKGROUND OF COMPANY. …………â⠂¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦2 CHAPTER I. approach…………………………………………… II. 1. OVERVIEW OF commutationING…………….. II. II. 1. OVERVIEW OF ROUTING……… II. II. 2. judgmentS OF ROUTING………. ?II. 2. CONCEPTS OF break……………….. add-in OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………. ….. …………………3 CHAPTER II. PRESENATION ON SWITCHING AND ROUTING CONCEPTS AND embodiment…………………………à ¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦Ã¢â‚¬Â¦II. 3. well-nigh frame OF SWITCHING…………. II. II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF ROUTING……………….. II. III. NETWORK tier……………………………………… II. III. 2. CISCO HIERARCHIAL stage…………… II. III. 3. aggregate LAYER…………… II. III. 4. DISTRIBUTION LAYER………….. II. III. 5. ACCESS LAYER…………….. II. III. 1. OVERVIEW OF NETWORK LAYER…………….. II. IV. NETWORK DESIGN CONCEPT …. II. IV. 1. THEORIES ON NETWORK DESIGN…… II. IV. 4 SWITCH cry recuperation II. IV. 2. OVERVIEW ON VIRTUAL local anaesthetic orbit NETWORK (VLAN) II. IV. 5. FIREWALL PASSWORD RECOVERY II. IV. 3. ROUTER PASSWORD RECOVERY…………………………………………………………………………..INTERNSHIP REPORT 6 INTERNSHIP REPORT 7 Chapter 2. Presentation on shifting, routing concepts and sort II. 1. OVERVIEW OF SWITCH What is conquering? Networking concept has two basic concepts and they are pommel over and Routing . They victimization one of these methods. are fundamental concepts in Networking , new(prenominal) topics give care entanglement security are found on these concept. Routing and Switching are the base parcel or entropy delivering methods in When we are public lecture about the stiring ,the communications protocols and concepts are related to the bottom 2 and selective schooling packets with in this social class that are called frame . r e bigger and bigger and too more than expensive. 10base5, 10base-T for cabling were used . . Better shift keyes fool more choices than 2 condition and because of this capacity, they In Networking there is a long history for confusees. At first beat the direct subsumeion earnings and each spin like router , alternate , hub , firewall , proxy , cash server, elanm are As you know the stir refers to the device that bottom select one condition from 2 or more conditions .For example an electrical switch female genitalia select 0 as turn off and select 1 for turn on amongst to or more computer used to set up a engagement and much(prenominal) technology like 10base2, In those technologies , the base topology was BUS Technology and the close advanced of more devices for sending and receiving info , and when a device wants to send data for go into below we stool see a reasonable view to a hub and the meaning of bus . II. 2. CONCEPTS OF SWITCHING this technology is HUB. A bus or data bus refers to the one middleman(shared link) amid 2 or another device ,this bus should be abandon and none of devices should not use the bus . In INTERNSHIP REPORT FIGURE 1: SWITCH II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF SWITCHING ascertain switch>? switch> change switch# switch#disable switch> over beat switch# hand over version switch# immortalise flash: switch# portray mac- parcel out view board switch#show running-config switch#show inaugural-config switch#show vlan switch#show port wines switch#show port vlan1 descriptions The ? works here the uniform as in a router applyd to arouse the list of all acquirable sees User means, same as a router favour mode Leaves exclusive rightd mode Leaves drug drug drug drug user mode Displays information about software and hardware. Displays information about flash computer memory ( leave alone work put forwardd for the 2900/2950 series).Displays the current MAC address forwarding table . Displays the curren t embodiment in DRAM. Displays the current abidance in NVRAM. Displays the current VLAN mannikin. Displays the interface descriptor and spatial relation of line: up/up, up/down, admin down. Displays setting of virtual(prenominal) interface VLAN 1, the slight VLAN on the switch. INTERNSHIP REPORT 9 II. II. 1. OVERVIEW OF ROUTING is the process of selecting paths in a earnings along which to send communicate trade. Routing is effected for m some(prenominal) kinds of networks, including the telephone network (circuit transposition technology.Routers switching), electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transferral networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet II. II. 2. CONCEPTS OF ROUTING Whereas switches and bridges engage at OSI stage 2 (the data link spirit level), routers primarily operate at OSI Layer 3 (the network grade). Like bridging, pull in the forwarding decisions. Routers make decisions bas ed on network stratum protocols such as Internet communications protocol (IP) and Novell NetWare Internetwork Packet turn (IPX). growing beyond the capability of bridges. Before this popularity, networ he basal act of routing involves moving packets across a network from a source to a destination. The unlikeness involves the information that is used to Routing gained popularity in the mid- to late mid-eighties as a result of internetworks Figure 2: Image of Router II. II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF ROUTING modes, and the resulting prompts. The prompt helps you pick up which mode you are in and, therefore, which masterys are available to you: trend of Operation Usage Mode How to wear the Prompt The sideline table describes some of the most roughhewnly used modes, how to premise the INTERNSHIP REPORT 10User EXEC switch over remnant settings on a temporary basis, perform basic tests, and list system information. First level deviled. Router> Privileged EXEC Global Confi g System administration, set operational parameters. Modify frame that affect the system as a whole. Modify the operation of an interface. Create the initial configuration. From user EXEC mode, reckon enable password command Interface Config frame-up From privileged EXEC, enter configure terminal. From global mode, enter interface type number. Router# Router(config)# Router(config-if)# Prompted talks From privileged EXEC mode, enter command apparatus. User EXEC Mode:When you are connected to the router, you are started in user EXEC mode. The user EXEC commands are a subset of the privileged EXEC commands. Privileged EXEC Mode: Privileged commands entangle the following: • put together †Changes the software configuration. throw in the command disable to exit from the privileged EXEC mode and return to user EXEC mode. • reform †Display process and hardware event sums. • Setup †Enter configuration information at the prompts. INTERNSHIP REPORT 11 Configuration Mode Configuration mode has a set of submodes that you use for modifying interface settings, routing protocol settings, line settings, and so forth.Use caution with configuration mode because all changes you enter take effect immediately. position: To enter configuration mode, enter the command configure terminal and exit by pressing Ctrl-Z. closely every configuration command also has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a throw off got or function. Use the command without the keyword no to re-enable a disable feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default. For example, IP routing is enabled by default. To disable IP routing, enter the no ip routing command and enter ip routing to re-enable it.INTERNSHIP REPORT 12 Getting patron In any command mode, you can get a list of available commands by unveiling a point mark (? ). To obtain a list of commands that begin with a pcticular character sequence, type in those characters followed i mmediately by the question mark (? ). Router#co? configure connect transcript Router>? To list keywords or arguments, enter a question mark in place of a keyword or argument. Include a space before the question mark. Router#configure ? memory Configure from NV memory network Configure from a TFTP network host terminal Configure from the terminalYou can also abbreviate commands and keywords by entering just enough characters to make the command unique from other commands. For example, you can abbreviate the show command to sh. INTERNSHIP REPORT 13 Configuration Files every time you make changes to the router configuration, you must save the changes to memory because if you do not they will be muddled if there is a system reload or power outage. there are two types of configuration saddle aways: the running (current operating) configuration and the startup configuration. Use the following privileged mode commands to work with configuration files. show running-config †divu lge the running configuration. • show startup-config †display the startup configuration. • configure terminal †modify the running configuration manually from the terminal. • repeat running-config startup-config †copy the running configuration to the startup configuration. • copy startup-config running-config †copy the startup configuration to the running configuration. • erase startup-config †erase the startup-configuration in NVRAM. • copy tftp running-config †load a configuration file stored on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server into the running configuration. copy running-config tftp †store the running configuration on a TFTP server. INTERNSHIP REPORT 14 IP Address Configuration Take the following steps to configure the IP address of an interface. mistreat 1: Enter privileged EXEC mode: Router>enable password Router#config terminal Example: Example, Step 2: Enter the configure terminal command to enter global configuration mode. Step 3: Enter the interface type slot/port (for lake herring 7000 series) or interface type port (for lake herring 2500 series) to enter the interface configuration mode. Step 4: Enter the IP address and subnet mask of the interface using the ip address ipaddress subnetmask command.Step 5: get off the configuration mode by pressing Ctrl-Z Router(config-if)#[Ctrl-Z Router (config-if)#ip address 192. 168. 10. 1 255. 255. 255. 0 Router (config)#interface ethernet 0/1 II. III. NETWORK LAYER II. III. 1. OVERVIEW OF NETWORK LAYER INTERNSHIP REPORT II. III. 2. CISCO HIERARCHIAL LAYER 15 pecking order has many of the same benefits in network invent that it does in other areas of life. When used properly, it makes networks more predictable. It helps us define at which levels of hierarchy we should perform accepted functions.Likewise, you can use tools such as access lists at certain levels in hierarchal networks and ward off them at others. large networks can be extremely complicated, with ternary protocols, detailed configurations, and diverse technologies. Hierarchy helps us summarize a complex collection of expound into an understandable flummox. Then, as specific configurations are deficiencyed, the model dictates the appropriate manner to apply them. The Cisco hierarchical model can help you excogitate, implement, and maintain a scalable, reliable, cost-effective hierarchical internetwork.The following are the collar storeys: ? ? ? FIGURE 3 : CISCONHIERARCHIAL Each layer has specific responsibilities. However, that the lead layers are luculent and are not inescapably physical devices. Consider the OSI model, another crystalline hierarchy. The seven layers describe functions tho not necessarily protocols. Now, lets take a closer look at each of the layers. II. III. 3. CORE LAYER the encumbrance layer is responsible for transporting large amounts of data quickly The inwardness layer or Backbone The Distribut ion layer The Access layer and reliably.The conceptioner must discover that the warmness layer is purported with fault tolerance, oddly because all users in the network can be affected by a failure. The ability to annul superfluous delays INTERNSHIP REPORT in network concern quickly becomes a top priority for the network designer. What Happens at the Core Layer? 16 The warmness layer is sometimes called the network backbone. Routers and switches at the core layer provide high-speed connectivity. In an attempt LAN, the core layer, shown in Figure 1-7, may connect multiple doings or multiple sites, and may provide connectivity to the server farm.Goals of the Core Layer The core layer design enables the efficient, high-speed transfer of data between one section of the network and another. The primary design goals at the core layer are as follows: †Provide 100% uptime. -Maximize throughput. -Facilitate network growth. Core Layer Technologies Technologies used at the core layer intromit the following: †Routers or multilayer switches that combine routing and switching in the same device -Redundancy and load balancing †high-speed and aggregate links II. III. 4. DISTRIBUTION LAYERThe dissemination layer is sometimes referred to as the work separate layer and is the major communication point between the access layer and the core. The primary function of the distribution layer is to provide routing, filtering, and WAN access and to determine how packets can access the core, if needed. The distribution layer must determine the fastest way that network service requests are handled; for example, how a file request is forwarded to a server. After the distribution layer determines the best path, it forwards the request to the core layer. The core layer thus quickly transports the request to the correct service.II. III. 5. ACCESS LAYER The access layer controls user and workgroup access to internetwork resources. The access layer is sometimes ref erred to as the desktop layer. The network resources most users need will be available locally. The distribution layer handles any employment for remote services. INTERNSHIP REPORT The following are some of the functions to be included at the access layer: ? ? ? 17 Technologies such as DDR and Ethernet switching are frequently seen in the access layer. nonmoving routing is seen here as well. As already noted, three mark levels does not imply three separate routers.It could be fewer, or it could be more. Re piece, this is a shape approach. II. IV. NETWORK DESIGN CONCEPT My second part of my internship dealt with network design concept. In this I have been able to read different theories of network design from eBooks downloaded from the internet, doing exercises on subnetting, VLSM and VLANs and finally I had opportunity to do some practices on network documentation and laboratories on virtual LAN. II. IV. 1. THEORIES ON NETWORK DESIGN calculating a network for a better function ing of data access and resource sharing of any institution is an extremely important thing to consider.I wise to(p) different concept of designing a network whether by reading eBooks or discussing it with my supervisor. A good network design is still of four split in general: Continued access control and policies Creation of separate collision domains Workgroup connectivity into the distribution layer through layer 2 switching acknowledgment of customer’s needs and goals: In this part you deal with identifying business goals and technical requirements which include the childbed of characterizing the existing network, analysis of the network traffic. Logical network design: Here, it’s all about ontogeny a network topology.During this phase, you devise a network layer addressing model, and selects switching and routing protocols. It also includes security planning, network management design. Finally you make a work of the service provider on how he can meet your W AN and remote access requirements sensual network design: The physical design phase deals with specific technologies and products to realize the logical design. It starts with the pickax of technologies and devices for campus networks that includes cabling, Ethernet switches, radiocommunication access points, wireless bridges, and routers.There is also a selection of technologies and devices for remote-access and WAN needs. INTERNSHIP REPORT Testing, Optimizing and Documentation: The final step is to write and implement a test plan, build a prototype or pilot, optimize the network design, and document your work with a network design proposal. If your test results indicate any performance problems, then during this phase you have to update your design to include such optimization features. 18 In all this different network design steps, I have been able to do some practices on logical network design where I did exercises on subnetting, VLAN as network management requires it.II. IV. 2. OVERVIEW VIRTUAL LOCAL AREA NETWORK (VLAN) Definition A VLAN (Virtual Local Network) is a logically separate IP subnetwork. VLANs allow multiple IP networks and subnets to exist on the same-switched network. A VLAN is a logical circle domain that can swing out multiple physical LAN segments. It allows an administrator to group together stations by logical function. A VLAN has three major functions: i. Limits the size of broadcast domains ii. Improves network performance ii. Provides a level of securitySecurity †Security of in the altogether data are separated from the rest of the network, fall the chances of confidential information breaches. Advantages of VLAN: Higher performance †part of Layer 2 networks into multiple logical workgroups (broadcast domains) reduces unnecessary traffic on the network and boosts performance. Cost lessening †Cost savings result from less need for expensive network upgrades and more on this network. Types of VLAN There are diff erent types of VLANs. The type of network traffic they carry defines a particular type of VLAN and others INTERNSHIP REPORT 9 names due to the type or a specific function the VLAN performs. The following describes common VLAN: Default VLAN At the initial boot up of the switch, All switch ports become a member of the default VLAN, which makes them all part of the same broadcast domain. This allows any network device connected to any of the switch port to communicate with other devices on other switch ports. On Cisco switches the default VLAN is VLAN 1. VLAN 1 has all the features of any VLAN, except that you cannot rename or delete it. Data VLAN A data VLAN that can also be referred to as user VLAN.This is set up to carry only usergenerated traffic. The importance of separating user data from other type of VLAN is proper switch management and control. Native VLAN A native VLAN is assign to ashes port. An body port supports traffic sexual climax from many VLANs as well as traffi c that do not come from a VLAN. The trunk port places untagged traffic (traffic that does not come from a VLAN) on the native VLAN. In summary, the native VLAN observes and identifies traffic coming from each end of a trunk link. Management VLAN A management VLAN is any VLAN you configure to access the management capabilities of a switch.Your configured management VLAN is to be assign with an IP address and subnet mask. Any of a switch VLAN could be configured as the management VLAN if you has not configured or define a unique VLAN to serve as the management VLAN. In some cases, a network administrator proactively defines VLAN 1 as the management VLAN; this enables a loophole for an unauthorized connection to a switch. role VLAN Voice VLAN is configured to carry voice traffic. Voice VLANs are mostly given transmission priority over other types of network traffic. Communication over the network is not complete without phone calls.More calls are do over the network than other forms of a message transmission. Sending emails and text messages are also forms of inter-relations but listening to a real voice provides authenticity and assurance. SOME EXAMPLE OF VLAN INTERNSHIP REPORT There I was design a network that are composed with 1 router ,2 switch ,6machine. 20 And each switch have 3 computer . one switch to three machine . on the network we have default vlan ,native vlan ,management vlan. Management vlan can control other machine on network. this network have the vlan and trunk . e have design it by using a outils that called packet tracer FIGURE 4: DESIGN OF A NETWORK Example of same machine i ping Machine ip 196. 168. 40. 105 are pinging a switch3 ip address 196. 168. 40. 106 INTERNSHIP REPORT 21 FIGURE 5 : Command Prompt INTERNSHIP REPORT 22 II. IV. 3. ROUTER PASSWORD RECOVERY 1. Connect the router to the PC using a ease cable/port. 2. Open an emulation software (Hyper end or Terra Term or Secure CRT, Putty) + setup (Com port and bits=9600, etc. ) 3. Swi tch on the router holding DOWN CTRL + BREAK (keys) a. The router will boot and display the ROMMON prompt (Rommon;) 4.Type the CONFREG command to view current billet 5. Change the configuration narration (this is a hex number that tells the IOS where to fetch the configuration file. 0x142 bypasses the NVRAM contents, 0x2102 gets the configuration file from the NVRAM) a. Rommon;confreg 0x142 b. Reset (reboot i. e. power-cycle the router) The router will boot in principle but asking for a new configuration. 6. Router; (after byword NO to the configuration wizard) 7. Go to privilege mode (enable) and copy the startup-config to the running-config (Router#copy startup-config running-config).This will load the configuration with an unkown password back to RAM). 8. As you are already in privilege, the unkown password won’t retain you from changing the configuration. You can now change the privilege password (LAB#config t ; LAB(config)#enable secret cisco). besides change the console and vty passwords. 9. Change the configuration register back to 0x2102 (LAB(config)# config-register 0x2102) then reload (in privilege mode). 10. carry through your configuration. (LAB#copy running-config startup-config or write memory ~ wr) INTERNSHIP REPORT\r\n'

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