Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Nigeria\r'

'Analysis of the ch solelyenges of piety and paganity on semi presidential termal stability in Nigeria’s fourth republic (1999-2011) INTRODUCTION context to the Study Basically, Nigeria is a plural nine and heterogeneous in virtually all the heartt of encounter. The custom and tradition of Nigerians is so diverse to the extent that Nigeria as a country is right away confronted with the problem of religious belief and heathenishity towards their governing bodyal stability. The d confessslope and report of heathen encounter (societal wars and violence) open fire be t bucket alongd from eonian ( essential) offer rivalry to external (physical).And its home cause is non actually uttermost from power competition and decision devising over economic picks and some other(a) Coperni dissolve composition occurrenceor, like position. The implementation subprogram has of all cartridge clip involved more(prenominal) than wholeness or two persons. In or dinary concept, the author of this take on traces conflict keyst bingle to the first and early Patriarchal of gentleman history and ever since then, at that place has been an growth (in conglomerate dimensions) of Conflict in the face of human valet. Some argon item-by-itemised (internal) conflict, family, comm superstar, and group, intellectual, realm, communityal and international in nature, to credit rating and few.In conforming to this idea, Badawi (2006) in his command titled â€Å"World Apart” give tongue to thus, â€Å"indeed the greatest discord straight off is among the descendants of Abraham. These be the people of the book, the pursual of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, who had in occurrence sh ard a common beginning in the godliness of Abraham”. In shedding more lower in the above statement, Badawi statement goes removed beyond religious belief, rather, he was tracing angiotensin converting enzyme of the earliest source of confli ct which Badawi mentioned the off-springs of the verbalise Abraham.Even before Abraham, there had been conflict, so it is as old as human history down to the Abrahamic intent, to ancient kingdoms, Dukes, and kings. In more or less 88 B. C. , King Mithria successions VI of Pontus invaded papist territory in Asian Minor. He advised Asian debtors to kill their roman letters creditors. Happy to reduce their credit nonice bills, the Asians massacred 80,000 Romans. Ethno- semi cheekal conflicts pay stake greatly shaped our bring in manhood and of track down concord its geomorphological phenomenon, (William Easterly, 2001). For instances, the conflict we now call Israeli and Palestinian war, has been an ever-lengthening sort.The Assyrian, Babylonian war, by King Nebuchadnezzar of the hanging Garden in history, the Persia war, black lovage the Great (the Macedonian mad man in history), the German war of Adolf’s Hitler, the Roman wars, narro succeedg all these down, we came to the snout of African continent which seem to be an epidemic field of conflicts of diverse kinds process date. The giant-lion of African continent, just like the origin of conflict is verbalise to open utter very old in human history, point so in the baptistry of Nigeria, which can be traced to the colonial period of history. Conflict takes distinguishable sizes and shapes with diverse reasons and purposes.Majority of the conflicts takes clipping before their escalation and at such, could concur been modify right at their measureive early stages. The history of heathenity and social conflicts in Nigeria is besides traced back to the colonial transgressions that forced the heathen groups of the Yankee and southern provinces to become an entity called Nigeria in 1914. In the human face of Nigeria situation, disturbing history of colonialism, this generated hatred and conflict among different ethnic groups. The task of addressing this seed of conflict plan ted by the British has been a mixed one.After weakening the author diverse kingdoms, Emperors, etc now called Nigeria and reordering the groups’ regime, the colonial powers failed in nation building and providing for the peoples basic needs. Hence, un applyment, poverty increase, and due to these, conflict over scarce resources ensue. The Confederate and Northern protectorates were in addition world unify into a nation. Thereafter, the merging of different colonies into one country called Nigeria was forcefully done without the peoples consent. This was a major seed of conflict that is tranquilize troubling Nigeria today.This article is focused on the historic incidents of ethnic conflicts in at bottom Nigeria societies, the cause of the conflicts and perhaps, the government actions towards ethnic conflict in the country. In conclusion, this paper entrust explore into decision- devising (by the picks and those in authority) process has contributed immensely in generating the syndromes of conflict in the said state. The Nigerian governmental situation has witnessed more breaking of heads, than counting them. In fact, change surface when it has been convenient for heads to be counted, the outcome has always been the breaking of heads kind of.Conflict in Nigeria is so extreme because of lack of democratic behaviour. The head of the individual in the democratic context signifies citizenship. So when heads ar broken in the Nigerian policy-making community, the issue in respect of broken heads is citizenship. If conflict in Nigeria heart and soul the absence of democratic behaviour, it follows, therefore, that conflict in Nigeria is interwoven with the absence of democratic regime. Gurr (2000): has similarly shown that the incidence of conflicts at the global take aim declined in recent years with the heighten of democratisation.Nation-states where conflicts persist be those where what obtains is the democratisation of disempowermen t (Ake 1996). beyond the veneer of elections, the state remains ambushed, privatised, repressing and unpopular. The people who were tantalised by the prospect of a democratic revolution that would terminate decades of estrangement and pauperisation rescue been short changed and stipulation a ‘choice less nation’ (Mkandawire 1999). The ‘credibility gap’ which fostered the De-linkage of the people from the state, and enkindled social forces to struggle for democracy, is non being bridged (Rothchild 1995: 58).African peoples out of clear rational calculations sans throwback(prenominal) attachments claim turned their backs on the state ‘and devoted their loyalty to sub-national social formations such as the community, the sub nationality or ethnic groups’ (Ake 2000: 114). It is against this backdrop that the proliferation and exacerbation of violent ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria in the post-transition period can be appreciated. This article adopts an analytical framework that holds that The larboard amongst ethnicity and democratisation is found in absence of effective citizenship and good governance in post-transition societies.In the circumstance that democracy does not go beyond the conduct of multiparty elections to embroil improvement in the quality of life of the people, there is frustration, and people who already feel alienated from the state be defenseless and likely to be mobilised around counter- elites who run extant popular alienation from the state by whipping up sectarist sen convictionnts. This has been the case in Nigeria and several multiethnic states of Africa (Osaghae 1994).Although the foregoing theoretical discussion has focused on ethnicity, the term ethno-religious is adopted because whatsoever of the recent violent conflicts to be quizd were triggered by religious issues. The relevance of religious belief is also underlined by the fact that in Nigeria ethnic boundaries ten d to coincide with religious belief, with the exception of the Yoruba ethnic group (Ibrahim 1999). The Nigeria state was alter in the year 1914 by lord lugard. The mingled geographical areas or territory which was amalgamated to form Nigeria by the colonialist comprises of various cleavages, clans, towns level there were kingdoms and hiefdoms with diverse culture, language, theology, norms values, customs and policy-making structures etc. The focus of the research monogram is to examine the utilisation of morality and ethnicity in Nigeria dissilient democracy. In Nigeria especially, morality plays a very vital and influential role in the society that has manifested itself as a steadfast force in the semi semi policy-making increment of the Nigerian state from pre-independence to post-independence. Hardly can the Nigerian state be talked intimately without reference to theology (Kukah, 1994; Falola, 1990; Kenny, 2006; International IDEA, 2000; Suberu, 2009).However, m orality in Nigeria, at different levels, is generally mentioned in detrimental terms. Or rather, historical events linked to holiness tilts more towards its negative than its positive contribution to the Nigerian state. The Jihad, the civilised war propaganda, the Sharia law controversy, the tensions enkindle by the Nigerian accession to the fundamental law of Islamic Countries (OIC) and the incessant religious crises that have engulfed the Northern part chiefly record that religion cannot be ignored or wished away in the Nigerian governmental development. Several religious crises have occurred in Nigeria.They have been documented as donnish dissertations for some of them. This piece of work does not intend to start the discourse on religious violence anew but only recognizes the fact that as a recurrent phenomenon it is worth being explored farther. frankincense â€Å"Boko Haram” menace which gained global recognition and even press support ranging from July 2009 boulder clay date is a the central focus of this take away together with other riots which has engulfed the Nigeria state from 1999 till date which most Nigeria educated elite cogitated that religion and ethnicity were the basic causes.The educated elite have conducted series of research on what the causes of this violent riots maybe. Most have cogitate that it can be traced and linked to the failure of governance in Nigeria. 1. 2 account OF PROBLEMS The mistake of 1914 has polarised the Nigeria society together with its citizens in which loyalty to the State is a mirage instead people pay loyalty to their various families and ethnic groups the effect of this can be traced to 1967 civil-war which disintegrate the country or in the political strategy which almost chasten to secession of the country with the easterner believed to be the aggrieved ethnic in the war.Similarly Nigeria has a yearn history of religious crisis which has affected the political instability of Nigeria . The maintasine riot of 1980 can be said to be the first major religious riot in Nigerian history, claiming nigh 800 lives. The Boko Haram insurgence in the northern part of the country which has been directed mainly against the Christians, they have suffered a deal out both physically, psychologically, economically, spiritually and even politically in the far North which has led political writers and pundits to affirm that Boko Haram conflict has its roots in Religion.The thrust of this work forget be to examine the underlying reasons behind political instability in Nigeria employ religion and ethnicity as a paradigm. 1. 3 kitchen stove OF THE STUDY. The study lead cover the impacts of religion and ethnicity towards the stabilization or in- stabilization of the Nigeria political constitution it exit cover how religion and ethnicity have impacted on the political stability of Nigeria. moreover the study leave behind emphasize more on the role the government is playing in stabilizing the un-stabilized country. 1. 4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The following can be regarded as the aims and objective of the study 1.To realise the meaning of religion, ethnicity, political stability, and political instability 2. To know how religion and ethnicity have negatively impacted on Nigerian political development 3. To develop accomplishable solutions and panaceas to the problems of religions and ethnicity to Nigerian political in-stability 1. 5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 What meaning does religion, ethnicity and political instability carries 2 How has religion and ethnicity impacted on the political stability of Nigeria 3 what are the possible solutions to the problem of religion and ethnicity in Nigeria political dodge 1. JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY m whatever a developing countries of the world are currently experiencing the problems which ethnicity and religion have caused. The ethnic problem which led to the apartheid era in South Africa is also the same ethnicity and reli gion problem which has almost disintegrated the Nigerian State. Recalling back to what happen during the civil war in the late sixties and early seventies which led to the introduction of the national younker service corp. by the then armed forces president General Yakubu Gowon which aim at integrating back the almost disintegrated country.Books, Journals, Magazines, Pamphlets, and parcel out of researches have been written and carried out one by one on the issue of ethnicity and religion, and its impact on the Nigeria political stability. This research work will serve as an additional real to the issue on ethnicity and religion to political instability in Nigeria, this work will focus more on ethnicity and religion and its impact on Nigerian government 1. 7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology will be based on secondary data collections ranging from books, Journals Newspapers, News Magazines, Pamphlets and even the Internet.In conducting any research basically there are two methodologies employed by researchers which are the primary and the secondary methods. This research work will be basically conducted using the secondary methodology as preceding mentioned. 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMS Ethnicity: According to the oxford advance learners mental lexicon ethnicity can solely mean â€Å"the fact of belonging to a particular race” from the dictionary meaning we can deduced the fact that Humans believed in race and they have passion for race which leads to humans ethnocentrism i. e. super ethnocentric in nature.Ethnicity has a strategical interaction of persons and other actors, who have different beliefs, attitude’s, values and goals as they shape particular conflict the distribution of resource’s and general issues of political rules at bottom a context of norms, prospects and institutions. Any of the rule, expectation and institutions may be reversed, maintained or inverted by the individual who win the right to control th em, in the course of those political duologues that are some condemnations called cooperation, and sometimes called war, and are usually somewhere between the two.In another sense, ethnic identity element are political resources just like cash or vote. Instrumentalist like Micheal Banton and Micheal Hecthtar, entreat that ethnic identity are not inherent in group or socio-formation of people. They see ethnic identity as socio-capital brought to bear on the political negotiation table by different groups and at different times. Hutchinson and Smith also deliberate that ethnic identity are an all important(predicate) resource that political Elite employ in securing the support of the masses as a strategy for gaining a in demand(p) good.These goods and or goals are â€Å"measured in terms of wealth, power, and status and… joining or national communities helps to secure these ends either by influencing the state, or in certain situations, through secession. Religion: reli gion on its own part can be regarded as the belief in the domain of divinity fudge or gods and the activity that are machine-accessible in the worship of them. Religion can also be stress further by meaning one of the governance of faith that are based on the belief in the existence of a particular God or gods.For typeface the Jewish religion, Christianity Islam and other world religion. Furthermore in the classical and ancient ages religion has achieved a lot in their political relation for example the doctrine of Islam was used in many Arab nations has their constitution even up till the present age. The Ancient Romans, also, during the time of Constantine authoritative Christianity as a religion and a mode of life which also affected their political terrain.Religion in the 21 century is now used narrowly towards Christianity and Islam even though other religion still exist but the former two religion have expansive to prominence that other religion are now beneath them. Fo r instance about Political stability: can fork up the mean of a system of politics in which the government of that State is experiencing a stable government and peaceful existence in the State or in otherworld’s a legitimately accepted government by the people. Democratically governed States are believed to be stable.In the global sense all political entity must be control democratically without internal oppression or external aggression. Any country of the world that is free from the aforementioned point are regarded as stable political system in other words internal oppression has cause a lot of havoc to many democracies of the world which has infringed on their stability as noted by Ojo 2002. Descent Rule: These covers a big set of cases that we commonly understand to be ethnic than the rules that ethnic groups must have a myth of common extraction or common origin.But it excludes several cases in which individuals routinely consider themselves, and are considered as members, of a group that we classify as ethnic even when their parents were not coded as members of this group. Take for example the year â€Å"Yoruba” when it was invented in Nigeria in the nineteenth century. At this time period, the parents of those who were assort as Yoruba were not themselves classified as Yoruba for the reason that this category did not exist during their lifetimes.According to Descent Rule, then, the category Yoruba in the nineteenth century would not be coded as ethnic. But the category Yoruba is universally coded as an ethnic category by all comparative political scientists, without making a distinction between time periods. As another example, consider the category â€Å" unwilling Caste” in India, which include as members individuals who possessed a given set of last names and/or ancestral occupations. The category was introduced by the Indian Central Government in 1990.Within a few years, 52% of the Indian population classified itself and was classified as backward. and the parents of those who termed themselves â€Å"Backward Caste” were not coded by themselves or by others as â€Å"Backward Caste” because, as in the case of the first generation of Yoruba’s, this category did not exist during their lifetimes Democracy: According to Abraham capital of Nebraska he defines democracy as the government of the people by the people and for the people.In this pert democracy connotes a system of government in which all the people in a country will have the outright say on the government of their country although in a case manner meaning that they will elect representatives that will represent their interest in the government. Advanced countries if the world where democracy is practiced completely they have national identity as opposed to the developing world where they have ethnic identity.Advanced democracies always believe in secularism in which every religion is accepted and embraced not a system in which part will have cognisance to a religion and the other will believe in other religion causing serious tension in such states like Nigeria. Federalism : Elasar (cited in Akande, 1996:1)” the formation of European union (EU) which simply begun as a trading fusion for coal and steel is now go towards a more integrated political union founded upon federal rationale of governance”.The African union (AU) which is the federation of African counties where a central government mean to be created with sharing or percentage of power among the federating unit, even the world highest nerve body united Nation have in some little degree, evolved the principle of federalism. Federalism is a system of government which embraces unity in diversity. Federalism as a system of government is one in which there will be central and regional governments each one autonomous of each other.\r\n'

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